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    Removes unwanted or unnecessary information to make it clearer.

    Example 1: A car is very complicated, but it isn't necessary to know how it works to learn to drive.

    Example 2: A map could contain lots of information, but if you are going somewhere, you can highlight only your route.


    A measure to show how available something is to users.  

    Example 1: Font size and font style can be changed

    Example 2: Colour and background can be changed.


    Temporarily stores the results of calculations carried out by Arithmetic Logic Unit or ALU.

    Example 1: The accumulator stores the value 7, after it was calculated from 4 + 3.

    Example 2: The value 7 is retrieved from the accumulator to be used in 7 +10.


    A full reference of the source of a ready made asset, which gives proper recognition to the asset's owner.

    Example 1: Credit to: Web Buster UK

    Example 2: Credit to: Steven Smith 2009


    An actuator is a device or motor that can be controlled by a technology or system.

    Example 1: A motor to move a robot arm.

    Example 2: The actuator in a hard disk drive controls the position of the read head. It is told where to read by the computer.

    Address Book

    An email tool that lets you store contacts, email addresses and contact details of people.

    Example 1: I save all my contacts to my address book so I can find them again.

    Example 2: An address book can also be physical, but this is not as easy to edit and quickly find.


    Advanced Features and Techniques

    Including the use of more technical tools and assets

    Example 1: Alt-text 

    Example 2: Forms and Tables


    This is a type of spyware designed to automatically open adverts.

    Example 1: Ricky got a pop up of some gambling website, this was adware.

    Example 2: Murgatroyd's computer screen was full of adverts because she accidentally downloaded some adware.

    Affiliate Model

    A affiliate is a link on a website this is attached to another company's website.  The Affiliate website receives a percentage of the revenue from customers clicking through their website to the other company's website.

    Example 1: Amazon provides a lot of affiliate links.

    Example 2: If a person recommends a product, they can provide an affiliate link to get paid for the recommendation.

    AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScripts and XML)

    This is quite a new programming technology used to create sophisticated web applications.

    Example 1: Gmail was built using AJAX.

    Example 2: Google maps was built using AJAX.


    A sequence of step-by-step instructions to solve a problem or carry out a task.

    Example 1: A recipe is an algorithm.

    Example 2: Your brain contains an algorithm for walking.

    Algorithmic Thinking

    The ability to think of a pathway to solve a problem via a number of steps.

    Example 1: In order to write a recipe, you must use algorithmic thinking.

    Example 2: Programmers use algorithmic thinking to solve problems.


    A datatype that can handle both numbers and letters.

    Example 1: USername67

    Example 2: PassWOrd58


    A continuous signal that cannot be directly processed by a computer. 

    Example 1: Physical movement of an object.

    Example 2: Old radios.


    This is a Boolean Logic operator.  

    Example 1: Cat AND Dog, the AND means that the same web page MUST contain both the words Cat and Dog.

    Example 2: Boat AND Sea will find images of boats on the sea, rather than on a river or a lake.




    Software designed to stop and remove malicious content from a computer. 

    Example 1: Malwarebytes

    Example 2: Avast Anti-malware Scanner

    Anticipating Misuse

    Predicting potential misuse that might occur in order to take steps to prevent it.

    Example 1: Taking steps to make sure people can't enter random passwords and gain entry.

    Example 2: Ensuring people can't put letters into a calculator app to break it.


    An aperture is the size of the hole in the lens of a camera to determine how much light gets through.

    Example 1: A large aperture lets more light onto the sensor.

    Example 2: A small aperture lets less light onto the sensor.

    Application software

    Installed into an operating system to actually produce work.

    Example 1: Microsoft Word

    Example 2: Serif DrawPlus



    The data used by a sub-program.

    Example 1: In '1+2', the + is an argument.

    Example 2: Variables are also arguments as they are used by sub-programs.

    Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

    Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is part of the CPU.  Its function is to deal with all the calculation and all the logical decisions.

    Example 1: A calculation would be adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing to name but a few.

    Example 2: Logical Decisions would be an IF statement or WHILE Loop.


    An Array stores and arranges data over one or more drives

    Example 1: A computer with 6 drives in can make the drives an array to have it show as 1 drive.

    Example 2: Arrays can be used to back up data too.


    ASCII or American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a common character encoding of 128 hexadecimal values used by computer manufacturers to share. The system is used in most computer systems to hold alphabetic and numeric characters.

    Example 1: A B C 1 2 3

    Example 2: % & # @

    Aspect Ratio

    Aspect Ratio is the relationship between the height and width of your screen or in photography. Depending on the screen that you are watching a digital video on a process known as letterboxing and pillar-boxing, there will be 2 black bars that appear either horizontally or vertically at the edges on the video.

    Example 1: 16:9

    Example 2: 4:3


    A programming translator used to convert low-level languages into computer instructions. 

    Example 1: Most IDEs include assemblers.

    Example 2: My python code was assembled into machine code the computer could understand.

    Assembly Language

    A low-level programming language.

    Example 1: Assembly language is a combination of binary and hexadecimal.

    Example 2: My program was assembled into assembly language so the computer could understand it.


     Assets are the context created or collected for the final product.

    Example 1: Images and videos.

    Example 2: Sound and audio.


    An assignment in programming is a statement that assigns a value to a variable.

    Example 1: Variable 1 = 89

    Example 2: Variable 2 = "Rickster"


    A file that is attached to an email. This means that when you send the email the file you attach will go with it. Most email programs use a paperclip icon for attaching files.

    Example 1: You can attach images and videos.

    Example 2: You can also attach Word documents or PowerPoints etc.


    The acknowledgement of an original creator of a piece of work when copying or using it.

    Example 1: Credit to: Web Buster UK

    Example 2: Steven Smith 2009

    Audio Files

    An audio file is any file that contains, sounds, speach or music (or anything that makes a noise that you can hear).

    Example 1: .mp3

    Example 2: .wav


    Checking the identity of a user, usually through the combination of a unique username and password.

    Example 1: John entered his username and password and gained access to his profile because the site could authenticate it was him.

    Example 2: Steve tried to gain access to John’s profile but wasn’t able to authenticate himself because he didn’t know the password.

    Authoring Software

    Authoring Software is software that is used for creating, editing or deleting webpages.

    Example 1: Game engines.

    Example 2: XML editor.

    Auto Number

    A data type in a database used to greate a unique identifier for each record to create a primary key.

    Example 1: 9809786093

    Example 2: 0298723957

    Automated System

    A system that uses computer and technology systems that don't usually require human intervention.

    Example 1: A lot of factories use automated systems.

    Example 2: You can set up automated replies to emails while you are on holiday.



    The amount of data that can pass between two network devices per second. Imagine a wide road where lots of cars can drive side by side, this is high bandwidth, it is more efficient but more expensive too.

    Example 1: High bandwidth means lots of data can fit through at a time

    Example 2: Low bandwidth means less data can fit through at a time.


    The basis of a number system.

    Example 1: Base-10 (normal numbering from 0-9)

    Example 2: Base-16 (hexadecimal)

    Base 10

    A standard decimal numbering system. 

    Example 1: 0.1- 0.9

    Example 2: 0-9

    Base 16

    A number system with 16 characters of numbers and letters, also known as hexadecimal. 

    Example 1: AD381F

    Example 2: 1F9AAD


    A… basic… high-level programming language often used to teach beginners the principles of code.

    Example 1: The first code I wrote was in BASIC

    Example 2: BASIC taught me all the fundamentals.

    Battery Life

    Battery Life is the amount of time you have left before your battery runs out.


    BCC Stands for Blind Carbon Copy, you would use this if you sent an email to several people but you wanted to hide the identity of the email addres from the other recipients- by entering them into this field.

    Example 1: Gmail has a CC and a BCC field.

    Example 2: Using the BCC field prevents recipients viewing the email addresses of others.


    Computer code which consists of 1's and 0's.

    Example 1: 1

    Example 2: 0


    Binary Addition

    You add binary numbers together by following the binary addition rules ( see binary rules ).

    Example 1: 011001 + 010101 = 101110

    Example 2: 101100 + 100100 = 0101000

    Binary Addition Rules

    There are 4 main rules for binary addition:
    1+1=0 (carry 1)
    1+1+1=1 (carry 1)

    Example 1: 011001 + 010101 = 101110

    Example 2: 101100 + 100100 = 0101000

    Binary Data

    Binary Data is a set of files that contain data encoded in the binary form.

    Example 1: 1000101001000111110010010010100101

    Example 2: 1000101111000101000011111000001110

    Binary Rules

    The rules for Binary addition:

    0 + 0 = 0
    0 + 1 = 1
    1 + 1 = 0 (carry 1)
    1 + 1 + 1 = 1 (carry 1)

    Example 1: 011001 + 010101 = 101110

    Example 2: 101100 + 100100 = 0101000


    Binary search

    Looks for a specific value in an ordered list by comparing it to the others around it. 

    Example 1: Binary search must be carried out with an ordered data set

    Example 2: Searching for 7 in a list of 1-10, the data is split into 2, 7 is greater than 5, so that half is split into 2 again. This process is repeated until 7 is found.

    Binary shift

    The movement of bits in a binary sequence left and right to represent multiplication and division.

    Example 1: 1100 (12) x 2 = 11000 (24)

    Example 2: 110110 (54) / 4 = 1101 (13)


    Basic input/output system; computer start-up software stored in ROM. 

    Example 1: My computer first booted into the BIOS, then into the OS.

    Example 2: I can change the startup disk in the BIOS.

    Bios Chip


    A Bit is the place where either one of the two digits are kept (a 1 or a 0) Bit's are usually grouped to make a Byte.

    Example 1: 101 is 3 bits

    Example 2: 1010001 is 7 bits.


    The number of bits used per second to sample an audio or video file. 

    Example 1: High bit rates mean the quality of a video is better but needs more bandwidth.

    Example 2: To see my video clearly, I need a bit rate of 32 mbps.

    Bit rate s

    Bitmap Graphics

    Bitmap Graphics are picture files created using a series of pixels (or bits) within a grid system.

    Example 1: The file extension is .bmp

    Example 2: FMS Logo can use .bmp files to load in mazes to solve.


    The act of using believable scenarios to trick people into giving up personal information.

    Example 1: Steve blagged his way into getting Jack's password.

    Example 2: Because Cam and Cameron had the same name, Cam could blag his way into people thinking he was Cameron.

    Blagging s


    A storage area within a solid-state drive.

    Example 1: Data is stored on an SSD within a block.

    Example 2: Larger blocks will take up more space on the drive.


    Websites based around the creation of chronological entries or posts. 

    Example 1: You can have public journal on your blog.

    Example 2: You can learn all sorts of things by following people's blogs.


    A protocol for a short distance personal network, often used for sending files to those nearby.

    Example 1: I sent my favourite song to my friend using bluetooth.

    Example 2: I connected my wireless headphones to my phone via bluetooth.


    Data that can only have 1 of 2 different values.

    Example 1: Yes or No

    Example 2: True or False

    Boolean Operators

    Boolean Logic consists of operators, some of these are AND, NOT, OR and XOR.

    Example 1: Panther NOT Pink (Finds Documents containing the word Panther but NOT the word Pink)

    Example 2: Panther AND Pink (Finds Documents containing the word Panther but AND the word Pink)


    Boundary Data

    A pair of values at the upper and lower limits of the programs capabilities. Values outside of the range should be rejected.

    Example 1: A program dealing with a global population should have boundaries of 1 and 8 billion.

    Example 2: A program dealing with the number of students in a class should have boundaries of 1 and 35.

    Brute force attack

    Repeatedly trying different usernames and passwords in an attempt to access a system.

    Example 1: Trying every 4 number combination to gain access to someone's phone.

    Example 2: The more complicated the password, the harder it is for brute force attacks to work.

    Bubble sort

    Repeatedly compares adjacent pairs of values in a list and swaps until all items are in order. 

    Example 1: Bubble sort is the slowest and least efficient sorting algorithm.

    Example 2: When bubble sorting 7 and 18, they would not be swapped, 18 and 7 would be.


    An allocated space of free memory for data to be held temporarily.

    Example 1: A calculator stores a result in a buffer to be used in the next calculation.

    Example 2: Larger tasks will require a larger buffer to be allocated.


    A bus is a set of wires that transfers information between different components physically inside a computer.

    Example 1: Data was transferred from the RAM to the SSD via a bus.

    Example 2: USB is a type of bus.


    Bus Network

    A bus network is one of the cheapest networks. The more nodes (computers) you add to a bus network the slower it goes, this is because when you send data from one node to another it must pass through every node. The network consists of a main cable with terminators at either end to absorb the data as the data cannot flow back up the bus. All the nodes are connected to the main cable.

    Example 1: Connecting floors in an office.

    Example 2: Connecting a printer uses this topology.



    A Byte is a unit of information that consists of 8 Bits

    Example 1: 01001101

    Example 2: 11100101


    C Family

    A group of high-level programming languages.

    Example 1: C++ (C plus plus)

    Example 2: C# (C sharp)

    Cabled Topology

    When computers and devices are connected using cable rather than wireless.

    Example 1: Connecting a monitor to your PC.

    Example 2: Connecting a mouse or keyboard to your PC.


    Quick-to-access memory stored within the CPU.  Fast memory that is used as a data buffer between the CPU and the RAM

    Example 1: Data can accumulate in the cache, slowing the system.

    Example 2: Clearing the cache can speed up the system again.

    CAD/CAM (Computer-aided design / Computer-aided manufacture

    A technology system used to design component parts on a computer, and send the design to robotic tools that manufacture the parts. CAD systems are also used to make plans for buildings and structures and are often printed out on a plotter on huge pieces of paper.

    Example 1: Google Sketchup is a free CAD software.

    Example 2: Autodesk makes a lot of popular CAD software.

    Camera Pan

    Camera Panning is where the camera moves (usually horizontally) across a scene you are filming.

    Example 1: The camera pans to show the whole room.

    Example 2: The camera pans up to show some birds in a tree.


    In programming, casting is the conversion of one data type into another. 

    Example 1: 'True' from a string into boolean.

    Example 2: '2.0' from decimal (2.0) into integer (2).


    CC Stands for Carbon Copy, Used in emails you can copy in additional email recipients using this field.

    Example 1: Gmail has both a CC field and a BCC field.

    Example 2: Using CC means all recipients can see the other email addresses.


    CGI Stands for Computer Generated Imagery, often used in movies.

    Example 1: The magic in Harry Potter is CGI.

    Example 2: CGI can be used to make all sorts of stuff that doesn't exist when filming.


    A single letter, number or symbol in a program. 

    Example 1: A, B, or C.

    Example 2: 1, 2, or 3.


    Character sets

    A collection of symbols, letters or numbers converted into a computer-readable binary equivalent. 

    Example 1: ASCII

    Example 2: Windows Encoding


    Characteristics are the properties that something or someone has.

    Example 1: Confident and funny.

    Example 2: A big smile.


    Chat, refers to any kind of online real-time communication over the internet

    Example 1: DC360 has a chat function so you can ask your friends questions about the lessons.

    Example 2: A lot of websites, including DC360 for your teachers, have a support chat function.

    Chat Room

    Chat Room are large scale with many people involved in the same conversation.

    Example 1: Many chat systems have the ability to have group chats.

    Example 2: Programs like teams and zoom also have chat rooms.

    Check Digit

    Used for error detection in identification numbers; the last digit is checked against a criterion.

    Example 1: Many credit card numbers have check digits to test the validity of the number.

    Example 2: License keys also make use of check digits.


    A microchip (often called a chip) in an integrated circuit (IC).

    Example 1: The GPU in a smartphone.

    Example 2: RAM sticks have multiple chips.

    CLI (Command Line Interface)

    Used in systems where you type command lines in as text to perform a specific function.

    Example 1: MS DOS

    Example 2: MacOS Terminal

    Client (customer)

    The person or organisation that requires the product.

    Exmaple 1: Web design companies design websites for customers, or clients.

    Example 2: Clients often contract a business or individual to fulfil a task.

    Client (server)

    A computer or workstation that receives information from a central server. 

    Example 1: I downloaded information from the server onto the client PC.

    Example 2: I changed information client-side and uploaded it back to the server.

    Client s 

    Client Brief

    A formal request from a client for work required.  The brief should contain the information and requirements for the work required in a document so it can be referred to later.

    Example 1: The client will describe the web page they would like built.

    Example 2: The client may suggest what the want editing out or into a photo.

    Client Server

    A server system that controls networked workstations.

    Example 1: A document was uploaded to the client server so everyone could see it.

    Example 2: Settings on the client server effect all the workstations attached.

    Client Side Processing

    When the interaction between the code and the web page occurs directly on the end-users computer.

    Example 1: Often, multiplayer games do most of the calculations online, and very little is done client-side.

    Example 2: When streaming video games, none of the actual computing is done on your PC. The only thing happening client-side is the displaying of the image.

    Clock speed

    The rate in gigahertz per second at which instructions are processed by the CPU. 

    Example 1: A faster clock speed will mean a faster computer.

    Example 2: My CPU is clocked at 3.4 GHz.

    Cloud Computing

    The remote access to files and applications via the internet.

    Example 1: My files are stored in the cloud so I can edit them anywhere.

    Example 2: I can remote desktop into my work computer to access all the programs on it from home.

    Cloud Storage

    Cloud Storage is where you save your files in a secure location on the Internet. In very basic terms, you have a folder with a password on it. You can then create lots of folders inside that folder to upload and organise your files.

    Example 1: Dropbox, Google Drive

    Example 2: DC360 File Manager

    cloud storage


    Codec stands for 'coder-decoder'. Media can be 'encoded' it is then decoded so that media such as digital video or andio can be played back.  

    Example 1: HEVC (High Efficiency Video Codec)

    Example 2: H.264

    Colour Depth

    The number of bits per pixel in an electronic image. 

    Example 1: 1-bit colour can only store white or black.

    Example 2: 64-bit can store billions of colours.

    colour depth s

    Colour Palette

    The tool that contains the colour options, where you can choose and mix colours.

    Example 1: Word has a basic colour palette for changing text colour where you can choose from pre-defined colours.

    Example 2: More complex programs like Serif DrawPlus have a colour palette that lets you choose from any colour possible on a computer.


    Commercial, is when an individual business or company productes products or services to make a profit. 

    Example 1: Web Buster UK is a commercial business. 

    Example 2: A public school is not a commercial business.

    Comparison operators

    Operators that compare two values to test the relationship between them.

    Example 1: == is equal too.

    Example 2: > is more than.

    Compatible formats

    Each program has a file format. File formats which are not compatible for each other will not work.

    Example 1: Microsoft Word is compatible with .docx

    Example 2: Microsoft Word is not compatible with .pptx, that is for powerpoint.


    Used to read high-level languages and convert programs as a whole into machine code.

    Example 1: C++ Builder

    Example 2: Microsoft Visual C++


    The Data Compression process reduces the size of an electronic file. Making it smaller to store and transfer. It can sometimes have an impact on the quality of the file.

    Example 1: I needed to compress an image so it could be sent over email.

    Example 2: I compressed a video so that it could fit onto my USB stick.

    Computational Thinking

    Computational thinking is the way of breaking problems down into a logical and structured way. It consists of three key components which are:

    Example 1: Decomposition, Abstraction

    Example 2: Algorithmic Thinking


    Concatenation is the adding together of two strings in a program. 

    Example 1: In the Python programming language the "+" operator is used to join two strings.

    Example 2: In the C programming language the function "strcat()" is used to concatenate two strings 

    Conditional Formatting

    Conditional formatting allows you to apply formats to a cell depending on the data.

    Example 1: Colouring a cell green if the number is above 0.

    Example 2: Colouring a cell red if the number is below 0.


    A value that cannot be changed or edited within a running program. 

    Example 1: Pi is a constant, 3.14159....

    Example 2: The speed of light, 299,792,458 m/s.

    Consumer Goods

    Consumer goods are items that people buy everyday.

    Example 1: Cars, clothing, music, food.

    Example 2: Jewellery, shampoo, DVDs.


    Continuity is where sections of a document are the same, without major changes in colour or format.

    Example 1: An essay is all the same font, rather than switching halfway through.

    Example 2: All the transitions in a powerpoint presentation are the same.


    Contrast is a way to measure how light or dark a colour is in an image, or set of images.

    Example 1: Higher contrast will make the light parts of the image lighter, and the dark parts darker.

    Example 2: A lower contrast will make the light parts darker, and the darker parts lighter. 

    Control Unit

    The part of the CPU that controls the flow of data both in and around the CPU.

    Example 1: The control unit deconstructs instructions for the CPU.

    Example 2: GPUs also have control units.


    The way something is generally done.

    Example 1: The title of a presentation is conventionally the first slide.

    Example 2: The credits for a film a conventionally at the end.


    Cookies are small files stored on computers. Cookies are accessible by web servers, that contain internet browsing data. 

    Example 1: First Party Cookies.

    Example 2: Persistent Cookies.


    Coordinates data will tell you the exact location the position of an image or object, and it will tell you where exactly that image or object is within a particular area.

    Example 1: (-48, 385)

    Example 2: (104, 922)


    Copyrighted means the ownership rights of the original creator of any original content.

    Example 1: Original sound and music recordings.

    Example 2: Original artistic pieces.

    copyrighted s


    The processing units found inside a CPU; each core can carry out a separate task.

    Example 1: Dual core processors are very basic and can't do many things at once, but are cheaper.

    Example 2: 16-core processors are very good at multitasking but are also very expensive.


    CPU stands for Central Processing Unit.  It is the main engine of the computer.  It consists of 4 main parts:

    • ALU
    • PC
    • Cache
    • CU

    Example 1: The main brain of the computer is the CPU.

    Example 2: A faster CPU will often mean a faster computer overall.



    When a computer program stops functioning or a program freezes.

    Example 1: I was trying to do too much stuff at once and my computer crashed.

    Example 2: There was a bug in my program so it crashed.


    To crop something is to remove the parts you don't want, so only the bit that you do want will remain.

    Example 1: There was a lot of white background, so I cropped it all out.

    Example 2: Ricky covered half the photo with his thumb, but he could crop it out anyway.

    Crossover Cable

    A crossover cable is used to connect 2 computers together without a switch or being connected to a server.

    Example 1: Crossover cables can be used to set up a new computer.

    Example 2: I used a crossover cable to transfer some files directly.


    A method of encrypting or decrypting text. 

    Example 1: Ceasar Encryption

    Example 2: Ascii Encryption

    cypher s


    Data Bottlenecks

    A problem caused by the processor and bus data transfer running at different speeds.  In basic terms, it's like a traffic jam, when there is too much data waiting to be processed.

    Example 1: Short-term bottlenecks will recover after a period of time.

    Example 2: Long-term bottlenecks are often an issue with the program or hardware.


    Data Compression

    The Data Compression process reduces the size of an electronic file. Making it smaller to store and transfer. It can sometimes have an impact on the quality of the file.

    Example 1: I needed to compress an image so it could be sent over email.

    Example 2: I compressed a video so that it could fit onto my USB stick.

    Data Interception and Theft

    Data Interception and theft is the act of stealing and decoding a message containing information from an unknowing victim with the intent of compromising privacy or obtaining confidential information before it reaches its destination.

    Example 1: A hacker using a package sniffer software.

    Example 2: Eavesdropping on a conversation.



    A system for storing large amounts of organised information.  Most databases contain multiple tables, which may include several different fields, categorized and structured for ease of accessibility. 

    Example 1: Relational databases.

    Example 2: NoSQL databases.


    The process of breaking tasks down into smaller tasks, which then become easier to understand, process and solve.

    Example 1: Starting a jigsaw by solving the border.

    Example 2: Programming a calculator, starting by programming the addition function.


    The process of re-ordering the information on a hard disk, putting whole files together.  As the hard disk fills up, files begin to be stored in segments far away from each other.  This eventually causes the system to slow down, as the hard disk struggles to put a file back together again.

    Example 1: Defragmentation can speed up the reading of files.

    Example 2: Defragmentation should never be done on a solid state drive.


    Delphi is a high level programming language. Delphi can be used to develop web applications, mobile applications and also desktop applications.

    Example 1: Skype was programmed in Delphi.

    Example 2: Spybot was coded in Delphi.


    Denary is a less common name for a decimal number. Denary is a base 10 system.

    Example 1: 54

    Example 2: 96.4

    Denial of Service attack (DoS)

    A DoS attack (or Denial of Service attack) is the process where a hacker floods a website or network with excessive data traffic, to intentionally bring the system to a halt.

    Example 1: DoS attack on the BBC (December, 2015)

    Example 2: DoS attack on Google (October, 2020)


    Display Resolution

    The Resolution is the number of lines, pixels and dots over your screen. A 'High Resolution' monitor means that it can display a larger number of pixels per inch (DPI).

    Example 1: A lot of monitors are 1080p, meaning the resolution is 1920x1080.

    Example 2: Digital images and videos. have resolutions too, the higher the resolution of an image, the better the quality of the image will be.

    DNS (Domain Name Server)

    DNS is like the phonebook of the internet, people access information online through domain names like google.co.uk, but web browsers interact through Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.  DNS translates web pages into IP addresses so they can load internet resources and bring back your search results.

    Example 1: DNS maps example.com to

    Example 2: DNS maps google.com to

    DPI (Dots Per Inch)

    DPI stands for Dots Per Inch, which is a property of an image stating how many dots in every inch of the image. This is also referred to as PPI or Pixels per Inch.

    Example 1: Printing at a low DPI will have less detail.

    Example 2: Printing at a high DPI will have more detail.

    Drivers (Device Drivers)

    Drivers (or Device Drivers) is a piece of software to control a piece of hardware, that control a particular device within a computer system. There is usually a device driver for every piece of hardware.

    Example 1: Mice may need drivers to function.

    Example 2: GPU drivers will help the GPU function efficiently. 


    Embedded System

    An embedded system is a small computer system made to control a device that has a specific purpose or dedicated function, often built into a larger device.  In other words, the software will only work on that model or version of that device and no other.

    Example 1: In your home embedded systems are in Central Heating Systems. microwaves, washing machines, dishwashers, DVD Players, Smart TV's etc.

    Example 2: In mobile devices, they are in GPS Trackers. smartwatches, car touch screen systems known as ICE (In Car Entertainment) etc 

    The opposite of an embedded system would be software that works on many devices, for example, Windows, Android and IOS.


    Encryption is a way of coding information so it cannot be read by someone who does not have permission. There are many types of encryption but a very simple type is as follows:- You can encrypt a file with a password. Each character in the password has a value. A calculation is performed using that password and the text in the file.  If you open the file without the correct password, the text will be unreadable. If you use the correct password, the calculation will be reversed to reveal the correct words.

    Example 1: ASCII

    Example 2: RSA 



    The ability to remove stored data from a drive, device or chip.

    Example 1: You can delete a word document because it is erasable.

    Example 2: The BIOS is not able to be deleted because it is not erasable.


    Erroneous (or invalid) data

    This is data that the program rejects as invalid or incorrect that the program should not accept or process.  This might be because it is the wrong data type.  It might be because it contains characters that are not allowed.

    Example 1: Trying to enter a string data type into an integer data type.

    Example 2: Putting a special character into a username on DC360

    Error Diagnostics

    Error Diagnostics are also referred to as debugging tools, Error Diagnostics information is presented following the detection of an error and is used to identify errors in particular lines of code.

    Example 1: Jack peer reviewed Richards work and found a spelling error.

    Example 2: The IDE alerted the user that there was an error on line 172. 


    An ethernet is a type of cable that is used to create a physical connection between two devices in a local area network (LAN). 

    Example 1: Ethernet cables connect computers directly to the router.

    Example 2: Wifi allows a connection without an ethernet cable.


    This means that it cannot be in 2 categories.  For example, If a Mr Kipling makes a new cake and it is Exclusive to Tesco, then no other shop is allowed to sell this particular cake.  In other words it is exclusive to Tesco.

    Example 1: Mr Kipling has cakes that are exclusive to Tesco, meaning only Tesco can sell them.

    Example 2: Microsoft has games exclusive to Xbox, so no-one on a Playstation can play them.


    Exponentiation refers to the mathematical operation involving 2 numbers.  A pseudocode arithmetic operator that assigns one value to the power of another.

    Example 1: X^2 where 2 is the exponent.

    Example 2: X^-4 where -4 is the exponent.


    To change the format of a document into another format to be used in another program.

    Example 1: Exporting a photoshop project as a .png file.

    Example 2: Exporting a moviemaker project as a .mp4 file.


    In photography the exposure is the quantity of light which is determined by how long the shutter is open as well as how large the aperture (the hole in the lens) is open for to let light through.  Shutter speed and capture are the core concepts but the camera's ISO setting can be changed to move these up or down.

    Example 1: Less exposure produces a darker image with less motion blur.

    Example 2: More exposure produces a brighter image with more motion blur.

    Extended ASCII

    An extended version of the ASCII system, The basic ASCII set uses 7 bits for each character, giving it a total of 128 unique symbols, The extended ASCII character set uses 8 bits, which gives it an additional 128 characters.

    Example 1: π is the symbol for pi.

    Example 2: µ is the symbol for the greek letter mu.

    Extreme (or boundary) data

    Sometimes called extreme data, is data at the upper or lower level of expectations of what a program should be able to handle.

    Example 1: A program dealing with a global population should have boundaries of 1 and 8 billion.

    Example 2: A program dealing with the number of students in a class should have boundaries of 1 and 35.



    A field is usually a single column within a multi-column table category within a database.

    Example 1: Date of Birth

    Example 2: Last name

    File Management

    File Management is the organisation of files, folders and documents to allow easy access, a file manager will allow you to copy, create, rename move and duplicate files.

    Example 1: Sort by type

    Example 2: Sort by name

    File Server

    A file server is a computer connected to a LAN network that contains files to be shared by other computer devices connected to that LAN. 

    Example 1: The cloud stores files on a file server.

    Example 2: All files for a website are stored in a file server.

    Final Testing

    Final testing is the test stage that happens when the program or applications creation has been completed. This testing can be tested by users of the program.

    Example 1: Steven released a new program and Cameron used the program and found a bug and reported the issue.

    Example 2: Games often have bugs or errors that get patched after release. 


    Hardware and software firewalls are designed to help protect a computer or network from intruders, you would expect your home pc to be protected by a firewall but a company or corporation would have several layers of hardware firewalls protecting their network s from intruders, viruses,  or malicious software.

    Example 1: Proxy Firewalls.

    Example 2: NAT Firewalls.

    Flat-file database

    A database that stores data in plain text with no links to other tables.  A flat file database cannot contain multiple tables like a relational database can.

    Example 1: A list of names and phone nubmers.

    Example 2: A file system without folders is considered a flat-file system because everything is in one level.


    Flowcharts are a way of showing procedure, set of instructions or set of rules to follow in a diagram format.  You can use flowcharts instead of pseudocode when planning a programme.

    Example 1: I used a flow chart to plan what a program does to a specific input.

    Example 2: Using the flow chart revealed some errors in the logic of the program.


    Focal Point

    The Focal Point is the area where the creator wants the readers eyes to be focused.

    Example 1: A large arrow may point to a focal point of a poster.

    Example 2: Large, bold text will make the text become a focal point.

    Frame Rate

    Frame Rate (expressed in frames per second) is the frequency rate or speed at which consecutive images (called frames) are displayed.  The term applies to film and video cameras, computer graphics and motion capture systems.  Examples would be 6, 12 or 24 fps (Frames Per Second)

    Example 1: A lower frame rate  may appear jittery and slow.

    Example 2: A faster frame rate will appear smoother and faster.


    Frames are the individual still images that, once put in a long sequence, form a moving image image like an animation or video. 

    Example 1: A single frame will appear as a single image.

    Example 2: Multiple frames viewed in a single second will appear like a moving image.

    Frames Per Second (FPS)

    FPS stands for Frames Per Second and is the amount of frames that are seen per second. Some common values are; 6, 12, 24, 30, 54 and 60.

    Example 1: A lower FPS may appear jittery and slow.

    Example 2: A faster FPS will appear smoother and faster.

    Full Backup

    The creation of an exact duplicate of computer data.  This is kept in a safe place, in the event that the original data is lost or damaged.

    Example 1: You can do a full back up of all of your computer data.

    Example 2: You can also do a full back up of a single drive.


    A function is a type of sub-program designed to return a value that the program will use. 

    Example 1: =SUM(A5:A8)

    Example 2: =AVERAGE(A5:A8)



    Genre is the terms used to categorise the type of content that the viewer is seeing. 

    Example 1: Horror

    Example 2: Sci-Fi

    Global Positioning System (GPS)

    A satellite-based system which makes use of satellites to pinpoint your exact geographical location.  The system is made up of 24 GPS satellites orbiting the Earth.  The satellites are controlled by a number of Earth Stations around the world.

    Example 1: GPS is used for tracking planes.

    Example 2: GPS is used for navigation on maps.

    Global Variable / Constant

    A global variable / constant is a value that is able to be accessed anywhere cross the code in a program. These values can also be accessed in the subprograms.

    Example 1: 'Admin' = 'User 1'

    Example 2: 'Zero' = 0

    GPS location

    GPS location is what is used to get a users current location on the planet. GPS location is calculated by using latitude and longitude coordinates to pinpoint the exact position. 

    Example 1: My GPS location is used to give me directions.

    Example 2: My GPS location can be used to show where a photo was taken.


    A graphic is a final product, that is made from multiple assets and/or pieces of text.

    Example 1: An image

    Example 2: A video

    Graphical User Interface (GUI)

    A Graphical User Interface or GUI, is the layout of what the end user interact with.

    GUIs are created to make using the product or service easy and intuitive. 

    Example 1: How the home screen on your phone is laid out, with the battery, mobile and wi-fi connection and time all at the top.

    Example 2: How DC360 is displayed.


    Hard Disk

    A Hard Disk is a large capacity disk that stores all your information, programs, games, files etc.

    Example 1: My computer has its main boot drive as a 4 TB hard-disk.

    Example 2: I back up all my files to an external hard-disk.



    Hardware is the physical components that are used.

    Example 1: A tablet.

    Example 2: A hard-drive.

    Hardware Standards

    Hardware standards are the rules and guidelines to asses whether a specific appliance hits the hardware requirements to do the intended purpose.

    Example 1: Plug sockets must be tested against hardware standards.

    Example 2: Power supplies must be checked against hardware standards to ensure they are safe for use.


    Hexadecimal is a number system. Hexadecimal starts at 0-9 and then letters are added.

    Hexadecimal is most commonly seen in colour systems. 

    Example 1: F1353 = 987987

    Example 2 1869F = 99999

    High Level Lanugage

    A High-level language is a programming language such as Python, which is designed to be very person friendly, with a grammar that is easy to understand. 

    Example 1: C++

    Example 2: Java


    Homeworking is the act of taking work place activities back to the home environment.

    An example of homeworking is when the teacher asks you to complete a task at home.

    Host / Hosting

    A host is the Internet Service Provider (ISP) providing server space for a web site.

    Example 1: BT

    Example 2: Sky


    HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. Although many call it a programing language it is actually a Markup Language that is used to build web sites.

    Example 1: Most websites were coded in HTML.

    Example 2: HTML codes the content of the site, where CSS can make it look nicer and modern.

    HTML Tags

    The tags at the start and end of content in HTML code that describe the action to be taken to the content.

    Example 1: <H3> to put the content as a 3rd level heading </H3>

    Example 2: <B> to put the content in bold </B>



    The name given to a variable or program client used to uniquely identify a program element in the code.

    Example 1: 'name' instead of 'variable1'.

    Example 2: 'fun_add' instead of 'function3'.


    When you illustrate something, you add images or information to support the story provided for the product.

    Example 1: Comics illustrate the story.

    Example 2: Many presentations will contain illustrations to help solidify a point.


    A digital interactive, artificial environment designed to engage the user completely in an experience - a 'world' within which a user can immerse themselves.  Often using three-dimensional headset technology.

    Example 1: Surround sound makes it so you can hear where the sound comes from, making it more immersive.

    Example 2: VR headsets are immersive because you can look around by moving your head.


    Improvements are what is needed to make something better.

    Example 1: Changing the text size to make it readable.

    Example 2: Fixing bugs so the program is usable.

    Incremental Backup

    To make an incremental backup, it jus to backup the files that have been changed since the last backup was made.

    Example 1: Since a full backup was made a month ago, only files that have changed in the last month need to be backed up.

    Example 2: No backup has previously been made, so this system needs a full backup rather than an incremental backup.


    Input is where any data which is entered into a system, is required to be processed.

    Example 1: A key being pressed on a keyboard will be processed so that it shows on the screen.

    Example 2: A mouse click will be processed so that the retrospective action of the mouse click will be shown on the screen.

    Input Device

    An Input Device is a hardware device used to send data to a computer system.  So users can communicate and feed instructions (eg by keyboard and mouse) and data to computers for processing, display, or storage.

    Example 1: Keyboard

    Example 2: Mouse

    Input Validation

    Input Validation is where checks are done against user data which has been entered into a program to check for accuracy and it's in the correct data format.

    Example 1: Checking a name hasn't been entered as a bunch of numbers.

    Example 2: Checking a date is in the correct format.

    Insertion Sort

    Insertion sort is something which repeatedly compares each item in a list with the previous item, and it then inserts it into the correct position. 

    Example 1: In a list 1 2 3 5 7 6 8 9, 5 and 7 would get checked but not swapped because they are in the correct order, but not the correct place.

    Example 2: 7 and 6 are not in the correct order, so would get swapped.


    An Integer is a whole number in which a program which has no decimal point for it.

    Example 1: 1, 2, and 3 are all integers.

    Example 2: 1.1, 2.4, 4.7 are not integers as they have a decimal component.

    Integrated Circuit

    An Intergrated Circuit is a single component that can be soldered onto an electronic board (motherboard for example)that connects the chip to other chips or the rest of the device.

    Example 1: A motherboard is an integrated circuit.

    Example 2: RAM sticks have integrated circuits.

    Internet Protocol (IP)

    An Internet Protocol (or IP Address) is a unique identification address assigned to network devices to enable connection to the server and the internet.  

    Example 1:

    Example 2:


    To look at and review the provided information and take the relevant information from it.

    Example 1: Take directions and take the ETA as that could be the most relevant to you.

    Example 2: Looking at a full ingredients list and only selecting the ones you need to buy.


    An interpreter is a computer program that executes or performs instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a computer language program.

    Example 1: Ruby

    Example 2: MATLAB

    Invalid Data

    Invalid Data is data which can not be processed and a program will not accept.

    Example 1: String type required instead of integer.

    Example 2: MM-DD-YYYY instead of DD-MM-YYYY.


    ISO is a setting on a camera which determines the sensitivity to the light levels.

    Example 1: ISO 100 is low so will appear darker.

    Example 2: ISO 800 is higher so will appear brighter.


    Objects that are on a document.

    Example 1: Any textboxes.

    Example 2: Any images.


    Iteration is the repeating a task until a certain criteria is met, typically getting successively closer to finding the solution to a problem.

    Example 1: Writing a long essay with multiple drafts, each time iterating on the last.

    Example 2: Editing a video multiple times, each time improving on the last is iterating.

    Iterative Testing

    Iterative Testing is the program cycle of design, development and testing of a program. 

    Example 1: Writing an essay that has multiple drafts, each time iterating on the last, and reading it to see if it makes sense, along with spelling errors.

    Example 2: Editing a video multiple times, meaning that every time there is a new version, something has changed.



    A general computer language program.

    Example 1: Minecraft was programmed using Java

    Example 2: Java also has many off-shoots such as JavaScript and JQuery.


    An input device often used to play games like flight simulators.

    Example 1: A keyboard.

    Example 2: A game controller.

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    A keyboard is the main input device for a computer or laptop..  The QWERTY keyboard is ideal for allowing computer operators to touch type at a speed of over 70 words a minute.

    Example 1: Laptops have physical hardware keyboards.

    Example 2:Phones have digital on-screen keyboards.

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    LAN stands for Local Area Network. This is a network that is in the same building or on the same site.

    Example 1: All devices in the same house are on a single LAN.

    Example 2: A school network will be a LAN as it is all on the same site.


    A set of network protocols grouped together.  OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is a reference model for how applications communicate over a network.

    Example 1: Application layer is the layer where users can interact.

    Example 2: Transport layer is where data is transported to a server.

    Least Significant Bit (LSB)

    Least Significant Bit (otherwise known as LSB) has the lowest value and is the first number on the right of an 8-bit binary sequence.

    Example 1: 01110011

    Example 2: 10100110


    Legislation is law, or a collection of laws.

    Example 1: Copyright laws.

    Example 2: Intellectual Property Rights.

    Linear Search

    A very basic search algorithm, it compares each value in a list, one at a time until the match is made.

    Example 1: If there is a list 1-5,000 and you are searching for number 4,999. It will check all values before 4,999 first.

    Example 2: If searching for 'Richard' in a list of names, it will search every name in A-Q first.

    Local Variable/Constant

    A Local Variable/Constant is a value which can only be referred to within a sub program which it is declared in.

    Example 1: A local variable that is declared within a function will only be used within that singular function.

    Example 2: The opposite of a local variable is a global variable, this is one that can be accessed by the whole program.

    Logic Diagrams

    A graphical representation of a project or activity, using formal logic.

    Example 1: I used a logic diagram to visualise how my program actually works.

    Example 2: Using the logic diagram, I found errors in my logic so I could fix it.

    Logic Error

    A fault or error in a program, either in the structure or the design.

    Example 1: If a calculator did 1+2 =5, there is an error somewhere.

    Example 2: Sometimes words can run over the edge of the page so it is not visible, this is also an error.


    A loop is a sequence of instructions that will be continually repeated until a specific condition is met. The most common loops are for loops, where the loop will be repeated a specific number of times based upon the loop condition, and while loops, where the loop will be repeated whilst a specific condition holds and it will not be executed if the loop condition is not met.

    Example 1- for loop that will print the numbers 1-10

    For x = 1 to 10
         Print x

    Example 2 - while loop that prints the numbers 1-6

    i = 1
    while i < 6:
        Print i
        i = i +1

    Lossless Compression

    Lossless compressions use an algorithm to compress data, without the loss of quality, and then reconstruct it without data loss.

    Example 1: PNG for images.

    Example 2: FLAC for audio.

    Lossy Compression

    Compression where the file size is reduced, by permanently removing some data from the files, such as duplicated data, e.g. if you compress an image this way, you man find the edges become jagged or the picture becomes pixelated. 

    Example 1: JPEG for images.

    Example 2: MP3 for audio.

    Low level languages

    Low-level languages are programming languages which are closer to direct instructions in which a computer will be able to understand.

    Example 1: Assembly

    Example 2: Machine Code


    Machine Code

    A low level programming language. Machine code is able to execute commands directly, which doesn't need to be translated.

    Example 1: Instructions for the CPU is managed via machine code.

    Example 2: The location of files on a hard-disk is managed by machine code.


    Malicious software, designed to steal information or damage your files by deleting or infecting your system with viruses, worms, trojan horses or spyware.

    Example 1: I clicked to download some free music and some malware was installed at the same time without me knowing. (Always use trusted sites.)

    Example 2: I lost all my files and photos because some malware took over my PC.

    Media access control

    Media access control (or MAC address) is a unique identifier hardwired into all network devices at the time of manufacture.

    Example 1: Networks are able to identify my device using its unique MAC address.

    Example 2: Some networks require approval of MAC addresses so unknown devices can't access them.

    Memory Address Register

    The location address in memory where the next piece of information or instruction that the CPU needs next.

    Example 1: The CPU can check the memory address register for its next instruction.

    Example 2: The memory address register contains instructions for all sorts of memory allocation locations.

    Memory Data Register

    A register in the CPU that stores data being transferred to and from the immediate access storage.

    Example 1: The data which is being stored in the register is in the process of being transferred from the memory to the central processor.

    Example 2: This is a temporary storage location for data, it is volatile memory.

    Merge sort

    Merge sort is an algorithm where data is repeatedly split into halves until single items are left, and then reassembled in the correct order.

    Example 1: A list of numbers will be split up into groups of 1 number each, then ordered corectly back in to a single group.

    Example 2: A list of words will be split into 1 word groups before being reassembled in alphabetical order.

    Mesh network

    A mesh network is a network topology where every device is connected to every other device on the network.

    Example 1: A Home Wi-Fi network

    Example 2: Providing a consistent wireless network to hospitals


    Extra information stored within a file.

    Example 1: If you take a photo and it stored the time and date of when the photo was taken, this is the metadata.

    Example 2: Documents have metadata such as the date it was created, the date it was last edited etc.


    Modulus is a pseudocode arithmetic operator, which is able to return the remainder after a division.

    Example: 17 mod 5 = 2

    Example: 13 mod 6 = 1

    Most Significant Bit (MSB)

    Most Significant Bit (otherwise known as MSB) has the largest value and is the first number on the left of an 8-bit binary sequence.

    Example 1: 10100110 (MSB is 1)

    Example 2: 0110010 (MSB is 0)


    A mouse is a pointing device that can be used to move a pointer around the screen so you can click on icons.  You single click to select and double click to activate.  A roller is often included so you can scroll up and down the screen.

    Example 1: Clicking the left mouse button allowed me to select a document on my desktop.

    Example 2: Moving the mouse forward on the desk moved the cursor on the screen upwards.


    Multimedia is something created using a combination of different forms.

    Example 1: Images.

    Example 2: Videos.


    Multitasking is where a computer is able to complete multiple processes at the same time.

    Example 1: Deleting files from the recycle bin, whilst saving a word document.

    Example 2: Copying files from one location to another.



    Narrative is the term used to explain a story or events by speaking them or writing it down.

    Example 1: The story must follow the narrative.

    Example 2: The comic book has images to help progress the narrative.


    Finding your way around a website, or the way in which an interactive multimedia product directs a user through content through a series of buttons and links.

    Example 1: Search boxes can help you navigate the web.

    Example 2: Buttons and hyperlinks help you navigate web pages.


    A network is a series of computers connected together.  There are different types of networks, Bus, Ring, Star and Mesh are but a few.  You can learn about networks in the Network unit.

    Example 1: My computer is connected to a local network so I can easily share files with my colleagues.

    Example 2: The internet is hosted in a massive network, anyone can access it from anywhere.


    Network Attached Storage

    An extra hardware storage device attached to the network for users to share or store data.

    Example 1: Because I use network attached storage, I can access the files on any device that is connected to the network.

    Example 2: It is easier to upgrade the storage capacity of a NAS.

    Network Forensics

    Software or hardware that monitors and/or records network traffic to analyse/block any potential network attacks.

    Example 1: Software can look at devices connected to a network and see devices that may be causing harm.

    Example 2: Software can analyse uploaded files for viruses to protect devices on the network.

    Network Policies

    A set of rules that all users within a network environment should follow.

    Example 1: All users on a network should use a secure password.

    Example 2: Some networks prevent downloading third-party software.


    In binary, a nibble is 4bits (half an 8-bit in the binary sequence).

    Example 1: 0111

    Example 2: 0010


    Non-Volatile is where the data is saved even if the power goes off.

    Example 1: The hard-disk drive.

    Example 2: The solid-state drive.


    Normal Data

    Acceptable data that a program can process.

    Example 1: The normal data type for a username would be a string.

    Example 2: The normal data type for an age would be an integer.


    Not is an operator in Boolean Logic, If you searched the Internet for Cat NOT Dog, the web pages that come up would contain the word Cat but would not contain the word Dog.  Any pages that contain both the word would NOT be displayed.

    Example 1: Searching Boat NOT ship will return images of smaller boats. 

    Example 2: Searching Dog NOT animal will return images of toy dogs, not real life dogs for example.


    One-dimensional array

    A data structure consisting or program consisting of a collection of common elements.

    Example 1: Names and phone numbers.

    Example 2: Usernames and encrypted passwords.


    Onomatopoeia. is the process of creating a word that phonetically imitates, resembles the sound it describes.

    Example 1: Meow

    Example 2: Clap 

    Open Source

    Open Source software means that the code used to create the program can be used by anyone. You can modify it, improve on it and update it.  Open source software often has people offering to help improve the code and add new features.

    Example 1: Open Office

    Example 2: VLC Media Player


    Operating System (OS)

    An operating system is a software that is designed to install on hardware for the user to install and allow programs to be run, and manage hardware devices, and manage files and folder structures.

    Example 1: Windows

    Example 2: Android


    Operators in Boolean Logic are things that combine two or more factors in a specific way.

    Example 1: x AND y

    Example 2: x OR y


    This is a Boolean Logic operator.  OR means 1 or the other or both. In basic terms, OR means "At least one of them".  If you ask for Ice Cream OR Cheesecake, then if you get both, that is still at least 1 of them.

    Example 1: Boat OR Car will return pictures with either a boat or a car in, not necessarily ones with both.

    Example 2: Dog OR Animal will return pictures with either a dog or an animal in, not necessarily ones with both.



    The origin of something is where it started, or where it came from.

    Example 1: Did it start here?

    Example 2: Or did it start here? 


    Output is where data is processed by a computer system, to which it is then returned to the user.

    Example 1: When a letter is pressed on a keyboard, the output is from what you seen on the screen.

    Example 2: You can input a calculation into a calculator, the answer to the equation will be the output.

    Output Devices

    Devices that output information from a computer.

    Example 1: Monitor

    Example 2: Printer-plotter

    Overflow Error

    An error that occurs when a computer or device tries to process more than it can or more than the computer is designed to process.

    Example 1: If there is no space left on the hard drive of the computer, and the user is saving a file which is larger than the space left on the hard drive - the computer will error out due to there being insufficient space left to save the file.

    Example 2: Hackers can trick password fields into accepting code that can be used to break in to the profile using overflow errors.


    To overwrite is to replace data with new or updated data.

    Example 1: Overwriting a file as it has had some amendments made to it.

    Example 2: Overwriting a file due to it needing to be started again.


    Packet Switching

    When data is sent over a network or the internet, information is not sent as one big file, instead, they are broken down into smaller packets and then reassembled at their destination.

    Example 1: A single image may be broken into 10 packets before sending.

    Example 2: A movie may have to be reassembled from 1000's of smaller packets.


    A Panel is the box or container used to contain one scene in a comic strip.

    Example 1: A single page may contain 6 panels.

    Example 2: In panel 2, the hero glared at the villain. In panel 3, they started charging at each other.


    Parameters are variables or conditions which are set in a program.

    Example 1: The default value for a calculator may be set to 0.

    Example 2: If something is added to a cart, the default quantity parameter maybe set to 1.


    A password is one way of securing your account. A secure password would contain, Uppercase Letters, Lowercase Letters, Numbers and a Symbol.

    Example 1: Password1234 would be a weak passwords.

    Example 2: X15c?Pl09x5 would be an example of a strong password.


    Pattern Recognition

    Pattern recognition is the process of recognising patterns by using a pattern learning algorithm.

    Example 1: 2, 4, 6, 8 has a pattern of adding 2.

    Example 2: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 has a pattern of adding the two previous numbers together.


    A peer-to-peer network is a kind of network where all computers connected to it act as both clients and servers.

    Example 1: File-sharing websites often use peer-to-peer.

    Example 2: Video-conferencing software like Skype uses P2P.

    Penetration Testing

    A test to search for vulnerabilities within a computer system, to test if it can be exploited for criminal purposes.

    Example 1: Testing to see if a database of usernames and passwords can be hacked.

    Example 2: Testing to see if entering gibberish into the password field allows it to be hacked into.


    A peripheral is any piece of external hardware that is connected to a computer, that isn't a CPU or memory device and adds additional functionality.

    Example 1: A monitor/screen for outputting video is a peripheral.

    Example 2: A computer mouse or keyboard are input peripherals.


    Permissions can be set on individual files or folders to allow or block specific users to access / view / read / write / delete or change the files.

    Example 1: User 1 has permissions to access, view and read a file, this means he can open up and see the content inside the file, but cannot change it in any way.

    Example 2: User 2 has permissions to access, view, read, write and delete the file. This means they can do all the things user 1 can do, but can also edit the file contents in any way they wish.

    Personal Computer

    A personal computer often known as a desktop computer as it is usually sat on a desk ready for use.

    Example 1: Dell makes PCs.

    Example 2: A MacBook is still a PC as it is a computer for personal use.

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    Pharming is a cyber attack that takes control of a website and redirects it to another website or even a fake site. This is achieved by modifying users DNS entries. 

    Example 1: Users could be directed to a website looking like their email login, but it is just to trick you into entering your login details.

    Example 2: The above example is even more dangerous when it is for a bank account.


    Phishing is a way of a fraudster impersonates you or your organisation, and asking you to answer questions so you divulge your password bank details or other personal details.

    Example 1: You could receive emails impersonating your school admin, trying to get you to share personal information.

    Example 2: You should always be careful when receiving unknown emails as they could be phishing scams.


    PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a general-purpose scripting language used in web development.

    Example 1: PHP allowed me to add some really cool stuff like dynamic animations to my website.

    Example 2: I combined my HTML site with PHP to help with the backend database.

    Physical Security

    Physical Security refers to the act of preventing damage or theft to important network equipment or data by physically removing the ability to access to it.

    Example 1: Ensuring equipment and data are located in secure rooms inside a building using locks on door with access restrictions.

    Example 2: Employing security to prevent attackers from being able to physically access the building.

    Pixel Dimensions

    A combination of pixels wide by pixels high.

    Example 1: 400 px x 700 px

    Example 2: 1920 px x 1080 px

    Pixels Per Inch (PPI)

    PPI stands for Pixels Per Inch, which is a property of an image stating how many pixels in every inch of the image. This is the digital equivalent of DPI.

    Example 1: Saving at a low PPI will have less detail.

    Example 2: Saving at a high PPI will have more detail.


    This is a large device that uses an arm to grab pens to draw precisely on a very large piece of paper.

    Example 1: An architecture firm will use a plotter to draw blueprints.

    Example 2: Engineers will also use plotters to draw large blueprints.

    Primary Key

    A unique field in a database, that can be identified but cannot be repeated.

    Example 1: A database containing details of clients first and last names may use a primary key consisting of a unique identifier such as a Customer ID. Only one client could be linked to any one Customer ID and the number should never repeat.

    Example 2: Primary Keys can be used to keep identities anonymous if required for data protection.

    Primary Memory

    Primary memory is the space the computer uses to run your programs.

    Example 1: Hard disks are often too slow to be used as primary storage.

    Example 2: RAM is much faster and can be used to run programs.

    Privacy Setting

    Privacy Settings restrict the information that others can see about you. 

    Example 1: You can change your privacy settings on Facebook so no-one can see where you live.

    Example 2: You can change the settings on DC360 so only your study buddies can see your posts.


    Private Key

    A Private Key is a password that you would use to open a message or file that is encrypted.

    Example 1: When content is sent via an encrypted web protocol, a private key is used to ensure content is encrypted, the recipient of the data uses the senders public key to decrypt the or file.

    Example 2: If someone discovered the private key, they would be able to gain access to the encrypted file.


    A Procedure is a series of programming instructions that does a specific task. One or Several procedures would make up a complete computer programme.

    Example 1: A procedure may be produced as a result of software development, where the programmers have identified a set of sub-programs/instructions that, when grouped together, perform a function that could be useful across other projects in future development. Such as a procedure that renders a 3D image, this procedure may be useful across any project/software that requires development of 3D imaging.

    Example 2: A calculator app may use procedures to calculate a longer equation, taking each addition or multiplication as a separate subtask.


    Processing refers to any calculations or operations that are performed on data that has been inputted into a system.

    Example 1: Logical and arithmetic processes inside the CPU, performed by the ALU and accumulator on data during the fetch-execute cycle.

    Example 2: The faster your CPU can process calculations, the faster your computer will be able to complete tasks like running programs.

    Program Counter

    This is one of the elements of the CPU. Its main function is to keep count of those jobs or instructions that have been done already and what still needs to be done.

    Example 1: The program counter contains the main memory address location of the next instruction that the CPU will fetch and then execute.

    Example 2: If the program counter were to fail, the CPU would not know which instruction to perform next.


    Proprietary is the owner, either the individual or the company that created it, usually protected under a trading name and purchased through a purchased licence.

    Example 1: If a company creates an image for use in it's online blog, that image is proprietary. If someone else wanted to use that image, they would need to abide by the license associated with it.

    Example 2: Proprietary software is software licensed by a particular company that developed it.


    A Protocol simply means an agreed way or agreed set of rules to do something. Created for network compatible devices to allow effective communications over a network.

    Example 1: You school will have a fire safety protocol, this is a set of rules that should be followed in the case of a fire.

    Example 2: TCP/IP is the most commonly used internet protocol, these are the rules of how networks can function.


    A simple programming language using simple English terms to write a program. Pseudocode may be written in many ways, and is usually informed by the programming language that the person writing the pseudocode uses.

    Example 1: Pseudocode will often use simple words like IF and ELSE

    Example 2: Rather than labelling variables properly, pseudocode will often be much shorter so just number them accurately.



    Public Encryption Key

    Used to encrypt a message that is sent over the internet and it prevents anyone from looking at it in transit. Then it can only be opened by someone who has the Private Encryption Key.

    Example 1: A message being sent over the internet is first encrypted using the recipients public key, they are then able to decrypt the message using a private key that nobody else has.

    Example 2: If someone received the public encryption key alone, they would not be able to access the data.


    Python is a High Level, general-purpose programming language.

    Example 1: Python is a general purpose programming language used in many different types of software and projects, many of which you may have heard of. The types of uses Python has come in areas like data science, machine learning, web development, financial analysis, desktop applications, business apps, scripting and utility software and much more.

    Example 2: Element of the following popular solutions were developed using or as a result of Python: Youtube, Dropbox, Google, Quora, Instagram, Spotify, Reddit, Yahoo Maps. (There are many more too!)



    A Quotient is an answer to a division calculation. In other words, when you divide one number by another number, the answer is a quotient.

    Example 1: 10 ÷ 2 is 5, in this case, 5 is the quotient.

    Example 2: 21 / 3 is 7, in this case, 7 is the quotient.



    Stands for Random Access Memory. Its a fast memory. Increasing the amount of RAM will allow you computer to run faster. The gold areas and the connectors and the black are the storage.

    Example: RAM is used during the fetch-execute cycle, it stores the instructions and data currently being used, and they are fetched one at a time until all instructions have been executed.

    Example 2: RAM (Primary memory) is not to be confused with secondary storage, which is where things you want to save for use another time are stored. RAM is volatile, meaning when you turn the computer off, anything that was stored in RAM is lost.

    Random Number Generation

    Random Number Generation refers to the techniques used to generate random numbers whilst coding. Using either pseudocode or an actual coding language, the computer will generate a random number in a given range.

    Example 1: Pseudocode to generate a random number between 1 and 100.

    var rand = genRandomInt[1, 100]

    Example 2: Code in Python to generate a random number between 1 and 100.

    import random
    num = random.randint(1, 100)


    Ransomware is a piece of software (like a virus) that locks you out of a computer system until a ransom is paid to unlock it.

    Example 1: In 2018, the FBI's Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) received 1,493 ransomware complaints that cost victims over $3.6 million. This does not account for lost business, time, wages, files, equipment or third-party remediation costs. 

    Example 2: A well known example of ransom ware is the WannaCry ransomware, an encrypting ransomware computer worm, which was initially released on 12 May 2017. The ransom demand ranged from $300 to $600 to be paid in the cryptocurrency Bitcoin. 

    It targets computers running outdated versions of the Microsoft Windows operating systems by exploiting the EternalBlue vulnerability in the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol. 

    This allowed the ransomware to spread without victim participation. 

    Real (or float)

    Real (or float) is a type of program data.  All numbers including those with a decimal point.

    Example 1: 145834.56 is an example of a real/float number, as it contains a decimal point.

    Example 2: 0.00000012 is another example of a real/float number.


    A record is composed of fields in a database. A set of records makes a file.

    Example 1: Records are used to store data in an accurate, replicable way.

    Example 2: In the following example, each row is a record. Each record is made up of several fields (columns) which contain some information that relates to the record.

    Refining Algorithms

    Refining Algorithms refers to the process of making code more efficient and error-free throughout all stages of a program's development.

    Example 1: Algorithms may be refined by making code more efficient, by either finding ways to perform the same functions with less code and calculations to be performed by the CPU, or via the removal of unnecessary code.

    Example 2: Refining algorithms may mean making them more functional by thoroughly testing code and then identifying and removing errors.


    Registers are quick access memory locations found within the CPU. They are small and only store either memory locations, or the actual data that is to be executed by the CPU.

    Example 1: The Program Counter (PC) and Memory Address Register (MAR) are registers used to store both the next and current memory address location to fetch instructions from.

    Example 2: The Memory Data Register (MDR) is a register to temporarily store instructions that have been fetched from memory, before the CPU executes them.

    Relational Database

    A Relational Database, is multiple databases linked together

    Example 1: In a relational database, each row in the table is a record with a unique ID called the key. The columns of the table hold attributes of the data, and each record usually has a value for each attribute, making it easy to establish the relationships among data points.

    Example 2: In the following example, you can see how the unique ID's in each table are used to create a relational databa


    The Resolution is the number of lines, pixels and dots over your screen. A 'High Resolution' monitor means that it can display a larger number of pixels per inch (DPI).

    Example 1: A lot of monitors are 1080p, meaning the resolution is 1920x1080.

    Example 2: Digital images and videos. have resolutions too, the higher the resolution of an image, the better the quality of the image will be.


    ROM - Read Only Memory is a chip with instructions that cannot change.

    Example 1: Due to its permanent data storage nature, ROM is used popularly in different types of embedded systems because, in an embedded system, instructions and data do not need to be changed.

    Example 2: Embedded systems that use ROM are found in things such as TVs, microwaves, refrigerators, washing machines, calculators, printers, plotters, FAX machines, electronic toys, automatic doors and many many more.  See Embedded Systems for more information.


    A Router is a network device that connects networks together and allows them to communicate.

    Example 1: If your home has internet (Wifi) there is a good chance you also have a router! The router connects your home network to the internet.

    Example 2: Routers can also be used to segment networks, to provide protection as a firewall and to manually configure sharing of resources to streamline work environments in a business setting.

    Run-Time Environment

    A Run-Time Environment is a machine that programmers can test their software while it's running. In this environment where the programmer can track the instructions being processed by the program and debug any errors they encounter.

    Example 1: Programmers can use the Run-Time environment to debug their programs.

    Example 2: I used the Run-time environment to check that my program worked fully before publishing it.



    The process where analogue is converted into digital.

    Example 1: While sampling a sound wave, the computer takes measurements of this sound wave at a regular interval called sampling interval. Each measurement is then saved as a number in binary format.

    Example 2: A high sampling rate will mean most of the data is contained in the new digital file. A low rate may mean data is lost between measurements.

    Sampling Frequency

    Sampling Frequency (Sampling Rate) - defines the number of samples per second when converting analog to digital.

    Example 1: While sampling a sound wave, the computer takes measurements of this sound wave at a regular interval called sampling interval. Each measurement is then saved as a number in binary format.

    Example 2: A high sampling rate will mean most of the data is contained in the new digital file. A low rate may mean data is lost between measurements.


    A scanner is a device that is used to read in documents to a computer.  It can take a printed page and make it digital.  When OCR (Optical Character Recognition) software is used to scan the document you can often then edit the words on the page you have scanned in.

    Example 1: An office will use a scanner to back up any physical paperwork.

    Example 2: A scanner could be used with a printer to create duplicates of a paper-based document. 

    Secondary Storage

    Secondary Storage refers to devices that store programs and files that are not constantly available by the system in main memory. 

    Example 1: Hard disks you can buy have large amounts of secondary storage space, usually between 100GB-2TB. They can vary in size and speed, with price increasing as size and speed increase.

    Example 2: Removable memory devices like CDs and memory sticks (USB) are secondary storage that you can save files to, and carry with you to use on another computer.


    A Sector is a hard disk term.

    A hard disk is designed to hold lots of data, way more than your laptop or computer, but a Sector is very special magnetic structure, if you were to look at it, it would look like a double 20 area on a dartboard, with two rings and two lines forming the "Sector"

    It typically holds around 512 BITS of the users data and a little more on the side for wiggle room which helps the spinning hard disk.

    A group of Sectors is called a "Cluster"




    A question that the system asks you, that you need to answer before the next step can be carried out.

    Example 1: User may be asked to input an answer to a question, and the program will use an IF statement to determine the path to take depending ont he users answer.

    Example 2: IF user inputs "EXIT" THEN end the program, ELSE loop back to the beginning.


    Carrying out tasks one by one step by step.

    Example 1: In programming, sequencing is ensuring that code is written in a way such that statements and functions are executed in the correct order, step by step, so that errors are not encountered due to code being in the wrong order.

    Example 2: In the following code, we would receive an error because the program tries to calculate the average before the numbers are given values.

    total = 0

    average = number1/number2

    number1 = int(input("Enter the first number: “))

    number2 = int(input("Enter the second number: "))

    print("The average is ", average)


    Dedicated hardware or software system to provide critical services and functionality to devices connected to it.

    Example 1: Web servers host web pages, and applications that are accessible via the internet. Web servers are the very basis of the internet.

    Example 2: Database servers provide access to a database. Businesses use database servers to hold records of clients, as well as private company information.


    The technique of someone who watches over your shoulder while you put your pin number in the cash machine, in order to see personal information.

    Example 1: Richard was withdrawing money from an ATM, unwise to the man stood behind him watching over his shoulder. Richard later discovered someone had stolen his wallet, and somehow managed to access his bank account. The man who was shouldering Richard knew his pin number.

    Example 2: Richard could have avoided this by ensuring no one was watching him, and by covering his hand whilst inputting his PIN.


    A Sitemap is a list of pages of a web site within a domain.

    Example 1: A sitemap is used by its designers when planning its design.

    Example 2: There are two types of Sitemaps, they are HTML and XML.

    Social Engineering

    A range of methods used by fraudsters or criminals to access personal information, including blagging, phishing, pharming and shouldering.

    Example 1: Blagging is The act of using believable scenarios to trick people into giving up personal information.

    Example 2: Phishing is a way of a fraudster impersonates you or your organisation, and asking you to answer questions so you divulge your password bank details or other personal details.


    The programs and other operating information used by a computer.

    Example 1: System software 

    Example 2: Internet browser is a software 

    Software Standards

    Software Standards are agreed upon methods that make it easier for people to build programs and software that work on different systems in different countries.

    Example 1: File types and extensions need standards, such as MP3 which is a file format for audio files supported by most media-playing software.

    Example 2: Web pages use the HTML standard, which is a markup language for creating websites.

    Source Code

    Source Code is the code that a programmer writes whilst developing a program, before it is compiled and turned into machine code.

    Example 1: print("Hello World") is an example of source code. When compiled, a human would not be able to understand the purpose of this code as they can when it is source code. This code is clearly meant to print the words Hello World to the user.

    Example 2: The source code is run through a compiler to turn it into machine code, also called object code, that a computer can understand and execute. Object code consists of 1s and 0s, so it isn't human-readable.


    Malicious software designed to secretly pass on your personal or financial information to a third party.

    Example 1: Infostealers and Password stealers are spyware types designed to infiltrate a system, and collect personal information including passwords for things like bank accounts, social media and other personal information hat could be used to a third party's benefit.

    Example 2: Not all spyware is as directly malicious. take Gator – this program would monitor the victim’s web surfing habits and use the information to serve them with better-targeted ads.

    SQL Injection

    A computer attack using malicious code is used in a database query used to access and steal information.

    Example 1: In 2007, Russian hackers used SQL injections to hack into the 7-Eleven (American store chain) website and use that as a stepping stone into the convenience store's customer debit card database. This allowed the hackers to then withdraw cash back home in Russia.

    Example 2: In 2017 Equifax became the target of an SQL data breach that yielded extremely personal information (i.e., names, social security numbers, birth dates, and addresses) for 143 million consumers. They were even warned by cyber security professionals of their vulnerabilities before the attack took place.


    Solid State Drive (SSD) is a type of hard disk used in computers to store information when the power is turned off.  

    Example 1: SSDs have no moving parts so are less likely to malfunction.

    Example 2: SSDs are faster but more expensive.


    Standard Features

    Simple and basic features which should be in every website.

    Example 1: An easily - navigated Site map

    Example 2: A simple and sensible web address 

    Star Network

    A network topology where there is a server in the centre and all of the network devices are connected around it.

    The central hub of a Star Network can connect to nodes of four types:

         1. Repeater or Hub

         2. Switch or Bridge

         3. Gateway or a Router

         4. A Computer

    Example 1: Ethernet networks use star network topology.

    Example 2: The central hub in a star network is a single point of failure for all connected devices.


    Storage Capacity

    The maximum amount of data a storage device can hold.

    Example 1: A computer with a 500GB hard drive has a storage capacity of 500 gigabytes.

    Example 2: A server with 4 1TB hard drives has a storage capacity of 5 terabytes.

    Story Flow

    Refers to how a story moves.

    Example 1: If a story flows well then the reader will be more engaged.

    Example 2: If a story flows poorly, then the reader may struggle to follow the story.

    Streaming Services

    A Streaming Service can be presented to the user in real time or online tv services like Netflix / Amazon Prime / Now TV, Many other streaming services are available, in a variety of different media.

    Example 1: Netflix, Disney+ for TV.

    Example 2: Xbox GamePass for videogames.


    A string is a sequence of letters, numbers and symbols, usually enclosed within quotation marks.

    Example 1:  "hello world"

    Example 2: "LKJH019283"


    Structure Diagram

    Structure Diagrams are used to represent a problem graphically and group it into smaller problems, using a top-level approach.

    Example 1: I used structure diagrams to plan a complicated problem.

    Example 2: The structure diagram showed smaller problems I could solve, which added together to solve the big issue.

    Structured Query Language

    A Structured Query Language is a language for programming made to create, edit and search databases.

    Example 1: I used SQL to find a specific customer from a database.

    Example 2: A customers order was found using SQL.


    A Sub-Program is a program that can be run inside a larger computer program, this is done to save time and avoid repetition.

    Example 1: I used a subprogram to convert many values easily.

    Example 2: I used a subprogram to reset the entire program back to its original state.


    Network hardware that connects multiple computers together - to be able to communicate with other computers.

    Example 1: All the computers at school are connected to a single switch.

    Example 2: The switch is a vital part of a network.

    Syntax Error

    An error in a computer program, that usually results with it breaking the rules or grammar of the language currently been used.

    Example 1: Not putting a ';' at the end of a line is a syntax error in python.

    Example 2: Spelling while as 'whil' is a syntax error because it causes the code to break.


    Test Plan

    A written plan describing the basis for testing software. This includes the program tests, results, as well as any errors and how they are resolved.

    Example 1: I used a test plan to organise what my program should do.

    Example 2: The test plan showed the errors that might arise and so I knew how to correct them.

    Third Party Applications

    A Third Party Application that is created by a person or company who is not connected to the manufacturer.

    Example 1: An android phone comes with a camera app, but other camera apps are available to download, created by different people.

    Example 2: Even though Windows doesn't come with Microsoft Office, it is still made by the same people so is not third-party but is instead first-party.


    The topology is the basic layout of your network. It can also be an arrangement of physical equipment, such as computers or other network devices.

    Example 1: With star topology, outer devices are connected to a central server in a star.

    Example 2: With mesh topology, all devices are connected to other devices in a large web.

    Trace Table

    A Trace Table is used to examine every line of code step by step, and then predict the result or results of the chosen tested algorithm.

    Example 1: I used a trace table to see what a predicted output would be for a given input.

    Example 2: Trace tables helped me to find errors in my logic.


    A semiconducting device on a silicon chip, joined together to form an integrated circuit to either amplify or switch electronic flow within the circuit it's placed within.

    Example 1: Transistors allow circuits to function with logic.

    Example 2: A transistor can let current pass, or prevent current from passing given a particular circumstance.


    A translator is a piece of software that converts a computer program into machine code, designed so that the machine understands.

    Example 1: IDEs will often include translators in the program.

    Example 2: A program cannot function without being passed through a translator first.


    A Trojan is Malware, a piece of malicious software that is hidden in legitimate software, designed to run and cause damage to the hardware from the inside, install keyloggers and usually sends criminally-intended information back to its creator.

    Example 1: I accidentally downloaded a trojan and now I can't use my computer properly.

    Example 2: I didn't know it was a trojan because it looked like legitimate software.

    Truth Table

    A representation of all combinations of potential values for inputs with their corresponding outputs, typically presented inside of a logic diagram.

    Example 1: The truth table showed me what the expected outputs from my code will be.

    Example 2: I could see that some outputs in the truth table were wrong, meaning the logic is wrong.

    Two-dimensional array

    A Two-Dimensional Array is an array where each component inside the array contains either its own array or list of lists. It can be visualised as a grid or a table.

    Example 1: An array that has links to further arrays within it would be 2D because there are 2 levels to the array.

    Example 2: A list of names and their selected lottery numbers would be a 2D array since the numbers field contains a list.



    Unicode is a character that is designed with the purpose to contain all currently known characters from all currently known languages.  Computers just deal with numbers.  They store letters and other characters by assigning a number to each one.

    Example 1: Emojis are also unicode characters. U+1F60 is ?

    Example 2: The word "Hello" is written U+0048 U+0065 U+006C U+006C U+006F

    USB Memory Stick

    This is an external storage device.  You can save your work on this device instead of your hard drive or you can make a copy of your work to take away with you.

    Example 1: Steven saved his school work onto his memory stick so he could work on it at home.

    Example 2: Jack carries his USB stick on his keys so he has it on him at all times.


    User Access Levels

    Users on a network are given a User Access Level. This controls what you can do and what documents you can see.

    Example 1: A teacher may have access to the student's documents because they are on a higher user access level.

    Example 2: Other students do not have access to each other's documents because they are on the same user access level.

    User Management

    The handling and organisation of multiple users on the same computer, inside the same operating system.

    Example 1: Qasim had an account on his sisters laptop however he had different permissions to his sister as it was her laptop.

    Example 2: School networks will have 100's of accounts, one for each student. 

    Utility Software

    Utility software is usually a small piece of software used to perform a specific task.

    Example 1: To compress a file you would use a piece utility software to compress it. These are usually found to help support the operating system.

    Example 2: Converting files often will require utility software.



    A variable is a piece of data that has been given a specific value by the programmer. A variable can be changed by the code as the program is running.

    Example 1: A cookie clicker game counts the number of times a user clicks on there mouse. The number is stored using a Variable named "clicks". 

    Example 2: Each time the user clicks the mouse this number must change so the variable value chnges.

    Virtual Memory

    Virtual memory is created on the hard drive by the processor when your computer runs out of available RAM.

    Example 1: Ricky loads up a program that causes his RAM to be full and his computer starts to run slower. That is because the Virtual Memory has been created.

    Example 2: A section of Ricky's SSD has been allocated for virtual memory.

    Virtual Network

    A software managed network, that is created inside of a physical network.

    Example 1: A virtual network can be used to test updates to the physical network.

    Example 2: A virtual network can easily change settings such as location of the physical networks.


    A malicious piece of software usually hidden within another piece of software that attaches itself to files, and replicates itself to infect other files. When an infected file is run it can cause damage, crash computers, delete files as well as corrupt and destroy data. Viruses can be spread in many ways, from emails, computer networks, memory sticks, through downloadable files or other removable media.

    Example 1: WannaCry 

    Example 2: ILOVEYOU

    Visual Basic

    A programming language.

    Example 1: Cameron wanted to code a calculator and chose to use Visual Basic.

    Example 2: Visual Basic is great for learning how to programme simple programs.


    Volatile means that the when the power is turned off, the data will be lost.

    Example 1: RAM is a Volatile Memory.  Anything you have not saved when the power goes off will be lost. 

    Example 2: Volatile memory can be over-written in the background.

    Von Neumann Architecture

    A computer system usually referred to as a 'Stored Program' that contains both the computer program and the data said program processes.

    Example 1:  CPU's in most computers used today.

    Example 2: Von Neumann Architecture revolutionised how computers work.



    A WAN stands for Wide Area Network.  This is a network that is not just in the same building or on the same site, it is spread across the wide area. 

    Example 1: WANs can be used for whole universities, which are spread across whole cities.

    Example 2: Train systems use WAN because trains move all around the country.


    Parts that are not very good or that need to be improved.

    Example 1: If a webpage is hard to read, that is a weakness.

    Example 2: An answer that isn't very clear could also be a weak answer because it can be improved.

    Web Server

    A Web Server is a database that stores and hosts websites on it, it also controls and limits client access to the different web pages store on the server. This can be done by applying server wide rules such as content filters.

    Example 1: Apache HTTP Server.

    Example 2: Microsoft Internet Information Services (IIS).

    While loop

    While is used to represent a loop of pseudocode that has a condition set at the start of it.

    Example 1: WHILE (Y is TRUE)(Perform X)

    Example 2: while our number is greater than 1

                           divide our number by 2

                           increase our count by 1


    White Balance

    Is used to adjust colours to match the colour of the light source.

    Example 1: A warm white balance may appear yellow.

    Example 2: A cold white balance may appear blue.

    Wi-Fi Certified

    Wi-Fi Certified is an internationally recognised approval of hardware that has met the industry standard for operating.

    Example 1: Routers must be WiFi Certified.

    Example 2: All devices using Wi-Fi must be WiFi certified.

    Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2)

    A more modern encryption method found on most network enabled devices. 

    Example 1: Networks using WPA are password protected.

    Example 2: WPA2 is a more secure version of WPA.


    Wired is the term used to describe the physical connection between devices.

    Example 1: You can have wired keyboards that plug into your computer.

    Example 2: You can have wired mice that plug into your computer.

    Wired Equivalent Piracy (WEP)

    This is the oldest and also happens to be the least secure standard of Wi-Fi internet encryption.

    Example 1: WEP is less secure than WAP and WAP2.

    Example 2: WPA has not replaced WEP as a standard.


    The opposite of Wired, Wireless refers to the connection between devices been maintained by radio waves. Most Wireless tech however usually have to transfer this data through a sensor medium.

    Example 1: The Nintendo Wii's remotes data was picked up by a sensor bar to detect where on the TV you were pointing.

    Example 2: A Wireless Mouse or Keyboard, usually the data gets transferred through a USB Dongle that you plug into the computer that then sends the data to your device. 


    A sequence that the activities will be completed in.

    Example 1: Step 1 will always be completed before Step 2. This is the workflow.

    Example 2: Workflows prevent impossible steps being attempted.

    Working Memory

    Working memory is the space the computer uses to run your programs. 

    Example 1: The hard disk is too slow to run programs from, it is not used for working memory.

    Example 2: RAM is much faster and is therefore used for working memory.

    World Wide Web

    The World Wide Web is the part of the internet which is made up of websites. Each web site is made up of one or more web pages.

    It is only used to describe web pages that are connected to the internet. For example web pages saved on a CD would not be considered to be part of the WWW.


    example one:


    example two:




    A Worm is like a virus that attaches itself to files, deletes files and data, but also has the ability to self-replicate itself. As well as other things like sending an email from your account to everyone in your address book in an attempt to spread itself throughout the system.

    Example 1: Code Red II

    Example 2: Doomjuice


    A process of creating and saving, new or existing data to a disk, or overwriting data.

    Example 1: Elliot saved his word document and it was written to the secondary storage.

    Example 2: When saving over a file, you overwrite that file, that is, writing over it.



    The horizontal axis on a graph.

    Example 1: Ricky moved an asset horizontally along the x-axis.

    Example 2: When making a grid, the letters are often put on the x-axis.


    This is an Exclusive OR (XOR), it means the item must be exclusive to one category or another

    Example 1: A number can either be positive or negative, it cannot be both.

    Example 2: A number can be both an integer and a string, therefore XOR cannot be used.



    The vertical axis on a graph.

    Example 1: Ricky moved an asset vertically along the y-axis.

    Example 2: When making a grid, the numbers are often put on the y-axis.


    An online video-hosting website.

    Example 1: Steven posted his biking vlogs to YouTube.  A vlog stands for a video log.

    Example 2: Cameron posted his coffee reviews to YouTube.



    The 3-dimensional axis, forward or backward.

    Example 1: Ricky moved an asset forward along the z-axis.

    Example 2: 2D things do not have a z-axis.


    A file-type used to compress large groups of files for hosting online.


    An online video-conferencing program.

    Example 1: Teachers can use zoom to teach lessons online.

    Example 2: Businesses use zoom to have meetings from opposite sides of the globe.