If you have an account, please login below.


(Use the searchboxes to search for a word or definition)
Search for word
Search definitions



This is a Boolean Logic operator.  

Example 1: Cat AND Dog, the AND means that the same web page MUST contain both the words Cat and Dog.

Example 2: Boat AND Sea will find images of boats on the sea, rather than on a river or a lake. The web pages found would contain both the words "Boat" and "Sea".

Example 3: You search a gym database to find members who train in London and whose membership includes the use of the pool.

Example 4: Below is an example of an AND gate.



Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU)

Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU) is part of the CPU.  Its function is to deal with all the calculation and all the logical decisions.

Example 1: A calculation would be adding, subtracting, multiplying or dividing to name but a few.

Example 2: Logical Decisions would be an IF statement or WHILE Loop.


A file that is attached to an email. This means that when you send the email the file you attach will go with it. Most email programs use a paperclip icon for attaching files.

Example 1: You can attach images and videos.

Example 2: You can also attach Word documents or PowerPoints etc.


Removes unwanted or unnecessary information to make it clearer.

Example 1: A car is very complicated, but it isn't necessary to know how it works to learn to drive.

Example 2: A map can contain lots of information, however, you only need to know the route for your journey, not the entire map.

Example 3: In your exam, when it says "Herbert needs to know what volatile is". You can apply abstraction so it simply says, "What is Volatile?"


Temporarily stores the results of calculations carried out by Arithmetic Logic Unit or ALU.

Example 1: The accumulator stores the value 7, after it was calculated from 4 + 3.

Example 2: The value 7 is retrieved from the accumulator to be used in a new calculation for example 7 + 10.


This is a type of spyware designed to automatically open adverts. Think of Ads or advertisements.

Example 1: Ricky got a pop-up of some gambling websites, this was adware.

Example 2: Murgatroyd's computer screen was full of adverts because she accidentally downloaded some adware.

Example 3: Adware can cause annoying pop-up advertisements to appear on your computer while you are working.


A sequence of step-by-step instructions to solve a problem or carry out a task.

Example 1: A recipe is an algorithm. Measure this, measure that, then add this, then add that, stir and put in the oven.

Example 2: Your brain contains an algorithm for walking.

Example 3: As humans, we love to follow instructions, We often say we don't, but we all do. When you want to play your favourite console game you switch on the console, put the game disk in, press start and you are away. That is you following instructions.

Example 4: You wouldn't put butter and jam on your bread and then put it in the toaster, you would toast it first and then put butter, then jam on. You couldn't drink your tea before you had made it, that would be impossible!


A continuous signal that cannot be directly processed by a computer. 

Example 1: Physical movement of an object.

Example 2: Sound waves detected by our ears, allows us to listen to noises, speech and music.

Example 2: Analogue would be seen as being the face of a clock rather than a digital clock because we read the continuous movement of the hands rather than digits.


Software designed to stop and remove malicious content from a computer. 

Example 1: Malwarebytes

Example 2: Avast Anti-malware Scanner

Application software

Installed onto an operating system to actually produce work.

Example 1: Microsoft Word is one example

Example 2: Affinity Designer is another example

Example 3: A web browser like Edge or Chrome is another example



An argument is another name for a parameter within a function (sub-program).

Example 1: In '1"+"2', the + is an argument.

Example 2: Variables are also arguments as they are used by sub-programs.


ASCII or American Standard Code for Information Interchange is a common character encoding of 128 hexadecimal values used by computer manufacturers to share. The system is used in most computer systems to hold alphabetic and numeric characters.

Example 1: A B C 1 2 3

Example 2: % & # @


A programming translator used to convert low-level languages into computer instructions. 

Example 1: Most IDEs include assemblers.

Example 2: My python code was assembled into machine code the computer could understand.

Assembly Language

A low-level programming language.

Example 1: Assembly language is a combination of binary and hexadecimal.

Example 2: My program was assembled into assembly language so the computer could understand it.


The acknowledgement of an original creator of a piece of work when copying or using it.

Example 1: Credit to: Web Buster UK

Example 2: Steven Smith 2009

SQL Injection

A computer attack using malicious code is used in a database query to access and steal information.

Example 1: In 2007, Russian hackers used SQL injections to hack into the 7-Eleven (American store chain) website and used that as a stepping stone into the convenience store's customer debit card database. This allowed the hackers to then withdraw cash back home in Russia.

Example 2: In 2017 Equifax became the target of an SQL data breach that yielded extremely personal information (i.e., names, social security numbers, birth dates, and addresses) for 143 million consumers. They were even warned by cyber security professionals of their vulnerabilities before the attack took place.


A measure to show how available something is to users.  

Example 1: Font size and font style can be changed to make it easier to read.

Example 2: Colour and background can be changed as text on an image can be hard to read.

Example 3: Only use words that are appropriate for the age of the target audience, otherwise some readers may not understand the words.


A full reference of the source of a ready-made asset, which gives proper recognition to the asset's owner. This could be the link to where the asset is stored and an email giving permission to use it.

Example 1: Credit to: DC360 for the graphic of the visualisation diagram stored at www.dc360.co.uk

Example 2: Credit to: Steven Smith 2009 for the image of the dog and cat.

For more information see Copyright in this glossary. You must get permission in writing to use copyright material.


An actuator is part of a device that allows things to move. A Hard Disk Drive (HDD) has moving parts.

Example 1: A motor to move a robot arm.

Example 2: The actuator in a Hard Disk Drive (HDD) controls the position of the read head. It's told which part or section to read by the computer.

Address Book

An email tool that lets you store contacts, email addresses, and contact details of people.

Example 1: An address book can also be physical, in other words, on paper in a book.

Example 2: I can access, edit and view my electronic online address book from anywhere, on any device which I am logged into for example my phone or tablet. This is convenient.


Affiliate Model

An affiliate is a link on a website that is attached to another company's website.  The Affiliate website receives a percentage of the revenue from customers clicking through their website to the other company's website.

Example 1: Amazon provides a lot of affiliate links.

Example 2: If a person recommends a product, they can provide an affiliate link to get paid for the recommendation.

Example 3: Penny visits her favourite caking-making site and there is a link to buy some new pots of flavoured icing from Amazon If she clicks the link it will take her to Amazon to buy the item and the cake website will receive some money. Sometimes they get money for clicks but usually, they get money if Penny actually purchases some icing. If Penny went to amazon without the link, the cake shop would get no money.

AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScripts and XML)

This is quite a new programming technology used to create sophisticated web applications. These react to user actions without having to refresh the web page.

Example 1: Gmail was built using AJAX.

Example 2: Google maps was built using AJAX.


An Array is like a list, which stores a number of items. There is also a disk array that stores and arranges data over one or more drives.

Example 1: A computer with 6 drives in can make the drives an array to have it show as 1 drive.

Example 2: Arrays can be used to back up data too.

Example 3: An array in programming terms is often called a list for example fruit=["apple", "orange", "pear"].

Aspect Ratio

Aspect Ratio is the relationship between the height and width of your screen or in photography. Depending on the screen that you are watching a digital video on a process known as letterboxing and pillar-boxing, there will be 2 black bars that appear either horizontally or vertically at the edges on the video.

Example 1: 16:9

Example 2: 4:3


An assignment in programming is a statement that gives a value to a variable.

Example 1: Variable 1 = 89

Example 2: Variable 2 = "Rickster"

Audio Files

An audio file is any file that contains, sounds, speech, or music (or anything that makes a noise that you can hear).

Example 1: .mp3

Example 2: .wav

Authoring Software

Authoring Software is software that is used for creating, editing, or deleting webpages, touchscreen kiosk systems, and more.

Example 1: Adobe Dreameaver

Example 2: RocketCake

Example 3: Multimedia authoring to create touchscreens kiosk sytems for example PowerPoint.

Auto Number

A field in a database used to generate an automatic unique identifier for each record. This field could then be used as the primary key.

Example 1: 9809786093

Example 2: 0298723957

Automated System

A system that uses computer and technology systems that don't usually require human intervention.

Example 1: A lot of factories use automated systems.

Example 2: You can set up automated replies to emails while you are on holiday.


An aperture is a resizable hole in the lens of a camera that can determine how much light gets through.

Example 1: A large aperture lets more light onto the sensor.

Example 2: A small aperture lets less light onto the sensor.


 Assets are the content created or collected for the final product.

Example 1: Images and videos.

Example 2: Sound and audio.

Algorithmic Thinking

The ability to think of a pathway to solve a problem via a number of steps.

Example 1: In order to write a recipe, you must use algorithmic thinking.

Example 2: Programmers use algorithmic thinking to solve problems.


A datatype that can handle both numbers and letters.

Example 1: USername67

Example 2: PassWOrd58

Anticipating Misuse

Predicting potential misuse that might occur in order to take steps to prevent it.

Example 1: Taking steps to make sure people can't enter random passwords and gain entry.

Example 2: Ensuring people can't put letters into a calculator app to break it.


Checking the identity of a user, usually through the combination of a unique username and password.

Example 1: John entered his username and password and gained access to his profile because the site could authenticate it was him.

Example 2: Steve tried to gain access to John’s profile but wasn’t able to authenticate himself because he didn’t know the password.



Computer code which consists of 1's and 0's. Binary is known as Base-2 as it consists of 2 digits, 0 and 1.

Example 1: 1

Example 2: 0


Binary Addition

You add binary numbers together by following the binary addition rules ( see binary rules ).

Example 1: 011001 + 010101 = 101110

Example 2: 101100 + 100100 = 0101000

Binary Addition Rules

There are 4 main rules for binary addition:
1+1=10 (the 1 is carry 1)
1+1+1=11 (The 1 is carry 1)

Example 1: 011001 + 010101 = 101110

Example 2: 101100 + 100100 = 0101000

Boolean Operators

Boolean Logic consists of operators, some of these are AND, NOT, OR and XOR.

Example 1: Panther NOT Pink (Finds Documents containing the word Panther but NOT the word Pink)

Example 2: Panther AND Pink (Finds Documents containing the word Panther but AND the word Pink)


Binary Rules

The rules for Binary addition:

0 + 0 = 0
0 + 1 = 1
1 + 1 = 0 (carry 1)
1 + 1 + 1 = 1 (carry 1)

Example 1: 011001 + 010101 = 101110

Example 2: 101100 + 100100 = 0101000



The basis of a number system.

Example 1: Base-10 (normal numbering from 0-9)

Example 2: Base-16 (hexadecimal)

Bus Network

A bus network is one of the cheapest networks. The more nodes (computers) you add to a bus network the slower it goes, this is because when you send data from one node to another it must pass through every node. The network consists of a main cable with terminators at either end to absorb the data as the data cannot flow back up the bus. All the nodes are connected to the main cable.

Example 1: Connecting floors in an office.

Example 2: Connecting a printer uses this topology.



The amount of data that can pass between two network devices per second. Imagine a wide road where lots of cars can drive side by side, this is high bandwidth, it is more efficient but more expensive too.

Example 1: High bandwidth means lots of data can fit through at a time

Example 2: Low bandwidth means less data can fit through at a time.

Base 10

A standard decimal numbering system. 

Example 1: 0.1- 0.9

Example 2: 0-9

Base 16

A number system with 16 characters of numbers and letters, also known as hexadecimal. 

Example 1: AD381F

Example 2: 1F9AAD

Binary search

Thid divides the sorted list and compares the middle value with the search criteria. This process is repeated with the relevant half of the data each time until the search term is found.. 

Example 1: Binary search must be carried out with an ordered data set so that when it is divided a comparison can be made.

Example 2: Searching for 7 in a list of 1-10, the data is split into 2, 7 is greater than 5 so that half is split into 2 again. This process is repeated until 7 is found.

Binary shift

The movement of bits in a binary sequence left and right to represent multiplication and division.

Example 1: 1100 (12) x 2 = 11000 (24)

Example 2: 110110 (54) / 4 = 1101 (13)


Basic input/output system; computer start-up software stored in ROM. 

Example 1: My computer first booted into the BIOS, then into the OS.

Example 2: I can change the startup disk in the BIOS.

Bios Chip


The number of bits used per second to sample an audio or video file. 

Example 1: High bit rates mean the quality of a video is better but needs more bandwidth.

Example 2: To see my video clearly, I need a bit rate of 32 mbps.

Bit rate s


The act of using believable scenarios to trick people into giving up personal information.

Example 1: Steve blagged his way into getting Jack's password.

Example 2: Because Cam and Cameron had the same name, Cam could blag his way into people thinking he was Cameron.

Blagging s


A storage area within a solid-state drive.

Example 1: Data is stored on an SSD within a block.

Example 2: Larger blocks will take up more space on the drive.


Websites based around the creation of chronological entries or posts. 

Example 1: You can have public journal on your blog.

Example 2: You can learn all sorts of things by following people's blogs.

Bubble sort

Repeatedly compares adjacent pairs of values in a list and swaps them until all items are in order. 

Example 1: Bubble sort is the slowest and least efficient sorting algorithm.

Example 2: When bubble sorting 7 and 18, they would not be swapped, 18 and 7 would be.

Brute force attack

Repeatedly trying different usernames and passwords in an attempt to access a system.

Example 1: Trying every 4 number combination to gain access to someone's phone.

Example 2: The more complicated the password, the harder it is for brute force attacks to work.


A bus is a set of wires that transfers information between different components physically inside a computer.

Example 1: Data was transferred from the RAM to the SSD via a bus.

Example 2: USB is a type of bus.


Battery Life

Battery Life is the amount of time you have left before your battery runs out.


BCC Stands for Blind Carbon Copy, you would use this if you sent an email to several people but you wanted to hide the identity of the email address from the other recipients- by entering them into this field.

Example 1: Gmail has a CC and a BCC field.

Example 2: Using the BCC field prevents recipients viewing the email addresses of others.

Binary Data

Binary Data is a set of files that contain data encoded in the binary form.

Example 1: 1000101001000111110010010010100101

Example 2: 1000101111000101000011111000001110


A Bit is the place where either one of the two digits are kept (a 1 or a 0) Bit's are usually grouped to make a Byte.

Example 1: 101 is 3 bits

Example 2: 1010001 is 7 bits.

Bitmap Graphics

Bitmap Graphics are picture files created using a series of pixels (or bits) within a grid system.

Example 1: The file extension is .bmp

Example 2: FMS Logo can use .bmp files to load in mazes to solve.


A Byte is a unit of information that consists of 8 Bits

Example 1: 01001101

Example 2: 11100101


Basc is a high-level programming language often used to teach beginners the principles of code. BASIC stands for Beginners All-Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code.

Example 1: An example of basic code would be: print"Hello World"

Example 2: BASIC taught me all the fundamentals.


A protocol for a short distance personal network, often used for sending files to those nearby.

Example 1: I sent my favourite song to my friend using bluetooth.

Example 2: I connected my wireless headphones to my phone via bluetooth.


Data that can only have 1 of 2 different values.

Example 1: Yes or No

Example 2: True or False

Boundary Data

A pair of values at the upper and lower limits of the programs capabilities. Values outside of the range should be rejected.

Example 1: A program dealing with a global population should have boundaries of 1 and 8 billion.

Example 2: A program dealing with the number of students in a class should have boundaries of 1 and 35.


An allocated space of free memory for data to be held temporarily.

Example 1: A calculator stores a result in a buffer to be used in the next calculation.

Example 2: Larger tasks will require a larger buffer to be allocated.



CPU stands for Central Processing Unit.  It is the main engine of the computer.  It consists of 4 main parts:

  • ALU
  • PC
  • Cache
  • CU

Example 1: The main brain of the computer is the CPU.

Example 2: A faster CPU will often mean a faster computer overall.


Cloud Storage

Cloud Storage is where you save your files in a secure location on the Internet. In very basic terms, you have a folder with a password on it. You can then create lots of folders inside that folder to upload and organise your files.

Example 1: Dropbox, Google Drive

Example 2: DC360 File Manager

cloud storage

C Family

A widely-used group of high-level programming languages, which includes C, C++ (C plus plus) and C# (C sharp).

Example 1: Microsoft Windows is mainly written using the C family programming language.

Example 2: The video game Minecraft: Bedrock Edition has been rewritten in C++.


Quick-to-access memory stored within the CPU.  Fast memory that is used as a data buffer between the CPU and the RAM

Definition 1: Data can accumulate in the cache, slowing the system.

Definition 2: Clearing the cache can speed up the system again.


In programming, casting is the conversion of one data type into another. 

Example 1: 'True' from a string into boolean.

Example 2: '2.0' from decimal (2.0) into integer (2).


A single letter, number or symbol in a program. 

Example 1: A, B, or C.

Example 2: 1, 2, or 3.


Character sets

A collection of symbols, letters or numbers converted into a computer-readable binary equivalent. 

Example 1: ASCII

Example 2: Windows Encoding

Check Digit

Used for error detection in identification numbers; the last digit is often used as the check digit to be validated against a criterion.

Example 1: Many credit card numbers have check digits to test the validity of the number.

Example 2: License keys also make use of check digits.

Client (server)

A computer or workstation that receives information from a central server. 

Example 1: I downloaded information from the server onto the client PC.

Example 2: I changed information client-side and uploaded it back to the server.

Client s 

Clock speed

The rate in gigahertz per second at which instructions are processed by the CPU. 

Example 1: A faster clock speed will mean a faster computer.

Example 2: My CPU is clocked at 3.4 GHz.

Colour Depth

The number of bits per pixel in an electronic image. 

Example 1: 1-bit colour can only store white or black.

Example 2: 64-bit can store billions of colours.

colour depth s


Used to read high-level languages and convert programs as a whole into machine code.

Example 1: C++ Builder

Example 2: Microsoft Visual C++


The Data Compression process reduces the size of an electronic file. Making it smaller to store and transfer. It can sometimes have an impact on the quality of the file.

Example 1: I needed to compress an image so it could be sent over email.

Example 2: I compressed a video so that it could fit onto my USB stick.


Concatenation is the adding together of two strings in a program. 

Example 1: In the Python programming language the "+" operator is used to join two strings.

Example 2: In the C programming language the function "strcat()" is used to concatenate two strings 


A value that cannot be changed or edited within a running program. 

Example 1: Pi is a constant, 3.14159....

Example 2: The speed of light, 299,792,458 m/s.

Control Unit

The part of the CPU that controls the flow of data both in and around the CPU.

Example 1: The control unit deconstructs instructions for the CPU.

Example 2: GPUs also have control units.


Cookies are small files stored on computers. Cookies are accessible by web servers, that contain internet browsing data. 

Example 1: First Party Cookies.

Example 2: Persistent Cookies.


Copyrighted means the ownership rights of the original creator of any original content.

Example 1: Original sound and music recordings.

Example 2: Original artistic pieces.

copyrighted s


The processing units found inside a CPU; each core can carry out a separate task.

Example 1: Dual core processors are very basic and can't do many things at once, but are cheaper.

Example 2: 16-core processors are very good at multitasking but are also very expensive.


A method of encrypting or decrypting text. 

Example 1: Caesar Encryption

Example 2: ASCII Encryption

cypher s

Cabled Topology

When computers and devices are connected using a cable rather than wireless.

Example 1: The PC's in your classroom are connected via cables to your school's server.

Example 2: Connecting computers in a large office block. Computers on different floors are all connected to the server.

Camera Pan

Camera Panning is where the camera moves (usually horizontally) across a scene you are filming.

Example 1: The camera pans to show the whole room.

Example 2: The camera pans up to show some birds in a tree.

Example 3: The camera pans up and down a street to show a street party.


CC stands for Carbon Copy, Used in emails you can copy in additional email recipients using this field. Using CC means all recipients can see the other email addresses.

Example 1: Gmail has both a CC field and a BCC field.

Example 2: CC is often used to advise people of the content rather than them having to act.


CGI stands for Computer Generated Imagery, often used in movies.

Example 1: The magic in Harry Potter is CGI.

Example 2: CGI can be used to make all sorts of stuff that doesn't exist when filming.


Characteristics are the properties that something or someone has.

Example 1: Confident and funny.

Example 2: A big smile.


Chat, refers to any kind of online real-time communication over the internet

Example 1: DC360 has a chat function so you can ask your friends questions about the lessons.

Example 2: A lot of websites, including DC360 for your teachers, have a support chat function.

Chat Room

Chat Rooms are large-scale discussion forums. Many people can be involved in the same conversation.

Example 1: Many chat systems have the ability to have group chats.

Example 2: Programs like Teams and Zoom also have chat rooms sometimes referred to as breakout rooms.


A microchip (often called a chip) in an integrated circuit (IC).

Example 1: The GPU in a smartphone.

Example 2: RAM sticks have multiple chips.

Client Brief

A formal request from a client for work required.  The brief should contain the information and requirements for the work required in a document so it can be referred to later.

Example 1: The client will describe the web page they would like built.

Example 2: The client may suggest what they want to be edited out of or into a photo.

Client Server

A server system that controls networked workstations.

Example 1: A document was uploaded to the client server so everyone could see it.

Example 2: Settings on the client server effect all the workstations attached.

Client Side Processing

When the interaction between the code and the web page occurs directly on the end-users computer.

Example 1: Often, multiplayer games do most of the calculations online, and very little is done client-side.

Example 2: When streaming video games, none of the actual computing is done on your PC. The only thing happening client-side is the displaying of the image.


Codec stands for 'coder-decoder'. Media can be 'encoded' it is then decoded so that media such as digital video and audio can be played back.  The purpose of encoding the media is to compress the data which minimises bandwidth allowing it to be transmitted faster over the internet.

Example 1: HEVC (High-Efficiency Video Codec)

Example 2: H.264

Colour Palette

The tool that contains the colour options, where you can choose and mix colours.

Example 1: Word has a basic colour palette for changing text colour where you can choose from pre-defined colours.

Example 2: More complex programs like Affinity Designer, Serif DrawPlus and Web Buster Graphics have a colour palette that lets you choose from any colour possible on a computer.

CLI (Command Line Interface)

Used in systems where you type command lines in as text to perform a specific function.

Example 1: MS DOS

Example 2: MacOS Terminal

Compatible formats

Each program has a file format. File formats which are not compatible for each other will not work.

Example 1: Microsoft Word is compatible with .docx

Example 2: Microsoft Word is not compatible with .pptx, that is for powerpoint.

CAD/CAM (Computer-aided design / Computer-aided manufacture

A technology system used to design component parts on a computer, and send the design to robotic tools that manufacture the parts. CAD systems are also used to make plans for buildings and structures and are often printed out on a plotter on huge pieces of paper.

Example 1: Google Sketchup is a free CAD software.

Example 2: Autodesk makes a lot of popular CAD software.

Conditional Formatting

Conditional formatting allows you to apply formats to a cell depending on the data.

Example 1: Colouring a cell green if the number is above 0.

Example 2: Colouring a cell red if the number is below 0.


Continuity is where sections of a document are the same, without major changes in colour or format.

Example 1: An essay is all the same font, rather than switching halfway through.

Example 2: All the transitions in a PowerPoint presentation are the same.

Example 3: When filming scenes in a movie we must ensure actor wear the same clothes and have the same hair style for each take.


Contrast is a way to measure how light or dark a colour is in an image, or set of images.

Example 1: Higher contrast will make the light parts of the image lighter, and the dark parts darker.

Example 2: A lower contrast will make the light parts darker, and the darker parts lighter. 


Coordinates data will tell you the exact location the position of an image or object, and it will tell you where exactly that image or object is within a particular area.

Example 1: (-48, 385)

Example 2: (104, 922)


When a computer program stops functioning or a program freezes.

Example 1: I was trying to do too much stuff at once and my computer crashed.

Example 2: There was a bug in my program so it crashed.


To crop something is to remove the parts you don't want, so only the bit that you do want will remain.

Example 1: There was a lot of white background, so I cropped it all out.

Example 2: Ricky covered half the photo with his thumb, but he could crop it out anyway.

Crossover Cable

A crossover cable is used to connect 2 computers together without a switch or being connected to a server.

Example 1: Crossover cables can be used to set up a new computer.

Example 2: I used a crossover cable to transfer some files directly.


Commercial, is when an individual business or company supplies products or services to make a profit. 

Example 1: Web Buster UK Ltd is a commercial business. 

Example 2: A Bank is a commercial business.

Consumer Goods

Consumer goods are items that people buy everyday.

Example 1: Cars, clothing, music, food.

Example 2: Jewellery, shampoo, DVDs.


This is a set of approaches that are seen as good practice to use..

Example 1: The title of a presentation is conventionally the first slide.

Example 2: The credits for a film a conventionally at the end.

Example 3: The convention of creating variable names is to use capital letters for the start of each word starting at word 2. eg theBigHotel.

Computational Thinking

Computational thinking is the way of breaking problems down into a logical and structured way. It consists of three key components which are:

Component 1: Abstraction - (Removal of unnecessary information)

Component 2: Decomposition - (Breaking down into smaller chunks)

Component 3: Algorithmic Thinking

Cloud Computing

The remote access to files and applications via the internet.

Example 1: My files are stored in the cloud so I can edit them anywhere.

Example 2: I can access online software such as graphics and word processing software online. A good example is Web Buster Photo Graphics or Microsoft Office online..

Comparison operators

Operators that compare two values to test the relationship between them.

Example 1: == is equal to, is matches.

Example 2: = Assigns a value for example score=0.

Example 3: > is more than.

Example 4: != means not equals to..

Client (customer)

The person or organisation that requires the product.

Example 1: Web design companies design websites for customers, or clients.

Example 2: Clients often contract a business or individual to fulfill a task.


Data Bottlenecks

A problem caused by the processor and bus data transfer running at different speeds.  In basic terms, it's like a traffic jam, when there is too much data waiting to be processed.

Example 1: Short-term bottlenecks will recover after a period of time.

Example 2: Long-term bottlenecks are often an issue with the program or hardware.


Data Compression

The Data Compression process reduces the size of an electronic file. Making it smaller to store and transfer. It can sometimes have an impact on the quality of the file.

Example 1: I needed to compress an image so it could be sent over email.

Example 2: I compressed a video so that it could fit onto my USB stick.

Data Interception and Theft

Data Interception and theft is the act of stealing and decoding a message or data stream containing information from an unknowing victim with the intent of compromising privacy or obtaining confidential information before it reaches its destination.

Example 1: A hacker using packet sniffer software.

Example 2: Eavesdropping on a conversation.



A system for storing large amounts of organised information.  Most databases contain multiple tables, which may include several different fields, categorized and structured for ease of accessibility. 

Example 1: Relational databases.

Example 2: NoSQL databases.


The process of breaking tasks down into smaller tasks, which then become easier to understand, process and solve.

Example 1: Starting a jigsaw by solving the border.

Example 2: Programming a calculator, starting by programming the addition function.


The process of re-ordering the information on a hard disk, putting whole files together.  As the hard disk fills up, files begin to be stored in segments far away from each other.  This eventually causes the system to slow down, as the hard disk struggles to put a file back together again. Defragmentation should never be done on a solid-state drive as this would shorten the life of the drive.

Benefit 1: Defragmentation can speed up the reading of files.

Example 1: See the image below.


Denary is a less common name for a decimal number. Denary is a base 10 system.

Example 1: 54

Example 2: 96.4

Denial of Service attack (DoS)

A DoS attack (or Denial of Service attack) is the process where a hacker floods a website or network with excessive data traffic, to intentionally bring the system to a halt.

Example 1: DoS attack on the BBC (December, 2015)

Example 2: DoS attack on Google (October, 2020)


DNS (Domain Name Server)

DNS is like the phonebook of the internet, people access information online through domain names like google.co.uk, but web browsers interact through Internet Protocol (IP) addresses.  DNS translates web pages into IP addresses so they can load internet resources and bring back your search results.

Example 1: DNS maps example.com to

Example 2: DNS maps google.com to

Drivers (Device Drivers)

Drivers (or Device Drivers) are pieces of software that control a piece of hardware or a particular device within a computer system. There is usually a device driver for every piece of hardware.

Example 1: Mice may need drivers to function.

Example 2: GPU (Graphical Processing Unit) drivers will help the GPU function efficiently. 

Display Resolution

The Resolution is the number of lines, pixels, and dots over your screen. A 'High Resolution' monitor means that it can display a larger number of pixels per inch (DPI).

Example 1: A lot of monitors are 1080p, meaning the resolution is 1920x1080.

Example 2: Digital images and videos have resolutions too, the higher the resolution of an image, the better the quality of the image will be.

Example 3: If you have a larger monitor you are better with a higher resolution. The pixels are spread out more on a larger screen.

DPI (Dots Per Inch)

DPI stands for Dots Per Inch, which is a property of an image stating how many dots are in every inch of the image. This is also referred to as PPI or Pixels Per Inch.

Example 1: Printing at a low DPI will have less detail.

Example 2: Printing at a high DPI will have more detail.


Delphi is a high level programming language. Delphi can be used to develop web applications, mobile applications and also desktop applications.

Example 1: Skype was programmed in Delphi.

Example 2: Spybot was coded in Delphi.



This means that it cannot be in 2 categories.  For example, If a Mr Kipling makes a new cake and it is Exclusive to Tesco, then no other shop is allowed to sell this particular cake.  In other words it is exclusive to Tesco.

Example 1: Mr Kipling has cakes that are exclusive to Tesco, meaning only Tesco can sell them.

Example 2: Microsoft has games exclusive to Xbox, so no-one on a Playstation can play them.


Encryption is a way of coding information so it cannot be read by someone who does not have permission. There are many types of encryption but a very simple type is as follows:- You can encrypt a file with a password. Each character in the password has a value. A calculation is performed using that password and the text in the file.  If you open the file without the correct password, the text will be unreadable. If you use the correct password, the calculation will be reversed to reveal the correct words.

Example 1: RSA  (Public-key cryptosystem)

Example 2: AES  (Advanced Encryption Standard)


Embedded System

An embedded system is a small computer system made to control a device that has a specific purpose or dedicated function, often built into a larger device.  In other words, the software will only work on that model or version of that device and no other.

Example 1: In your home, embedded systems are in central heating systems, microwaves, washing machines, dishwashers, DVD players, Smart TVs, etc.

Example 2: In mobile devices, they are in GPS trackers, smartwatches, car touch screen systems known as ICE (In Car Entertainment), etc. 

The opposite of an embedded system would be software that works on many devices, for example, Windows, Android, and IOS.


The ability to remove stored data from a drive, device, or chip.

Example 1: You can delete a Word document because it is erasable.

Example 2: The BIOS is not able to be deleted because it is not erasable.


Erroneous (or invalid) data

This is data that the program rejects as invalid or incorrect that the program should not accept or process.  This might be because it is the wrong data type.  It might be because it contains characters that are not allowed.

Example 1: Trying to enter a string data type into an integer data type.

Example 2: Putting a special character into a username on DC360

Error Diagnostics

Error Diagnostics are also referred to as debugging tools, Error Diagnostics information is presented following the detection of an error and is used to identify errors in particular lines of code.

Example 1: Jack peer reviewed Richards work and found a spelling error.

Example 2: The IDE alerted the user that there was an error on line 172. 


Exponentiation refers to the mathematical operation involving 2 numbers.  A pseudocode arithmetic operator that assigns one value to the power of another.

Example 1: X^2 where 2 is the exponent.

Example 2: X^-4 where -4 is the exponent.

Example 3: 10^2 would be 10 x 10=100, 10^3 would be 10x10x10=1000

Extended ASCII

An extended version of the ASCII system, The basic ASCII set uses 7 bits for each character, giving it a total of 128 unique symbols, The extended ASCII character set uses 8 bits, which gives it an additional 128 characters.

Example 1: π is the symbol for pi.

Example 2: µ is the symbol for the greek letter mu.

Extreme (or boundary) data

This is data at the upper or lower level of expectations that a program should be able to handle.

Example 1: A program dealing with membership renewal months must be 1 and 12 as there are only 12 months in the year.

Example 2: A gym with minimum membership age of 15 and maximum age of 99 might have boundary data of 15 and 99.

Example 3: A program that says that due to the computers in the room, the class size must be between 1 and 35 could have boundaries of 1 and 35.


To change the format of a document into another format to be used in another program.

Example 1: Exporting a photoshop project as a .png file.

Example 2: Exporting a moviemaker project as a .mp4 file.


In photography the exposure is the quantity of light which is determined by how long the shutter is open, as well as how large the aperture (the hole in the lens) is. The aperture (hole) determines how much light is let through.  Shutter speed and capture are the core concepts but the camera's ISO setting can be changed to move these up or down. ISO is the sensitivity of the sensor.

Example 1: Less exposure produces a darker image with less motion blur.

Example 2: More exposure produces a brighter image with more motion blur.


An ethernet is a type of cable that is used to create a physical connection between two devices in a local area network (LAN). 

Example 1: Ethernet cables connect computers directly to the router.

Example 2: Wifi allows a connection without an ethernet cable.



Flowcharts are a way of showing a procedure, set of instructions, or set of rules to follow in a diagram format.  You can use flowcharts instead of pseudocode when planning a program.

Example 1: I used a flowchart to plan what a program does to a specific input.

Example 2: Using the flowchart revealed some errors in the logic of the program.



A field is usually a single column within a multi-column table category within a database.

Example 1: Date of Birth

Example 2: Last name

File Management

File Management is the organisation of files, folders and documents to allow easy access, a file manager will allow you to copy, create, rename move and duplicate files.

Example 1: Sort by type

Example 2: Sort by name


Hardware and software firewalls are designed to help protect a computer or network from intruders, you would expect your home pc to be protected by a firewall but a company or corporation would have several layers of hardware firewalls protecting their network s from intruders, viruses,  or malicious software.

Example 1: Proxy Firewalls.

Example 2: NAT Firewalls.

Flat-file database

A flat file database cannot contain multiple linked tables like a relational database can.

Example 1: A list of names and phone numbers.

Example 2: A file system without folders is considered a flat-file system because everything is on one level.

Full Backup

The creation of an exact duplicate of computer data.  This is kept in a safe place, in the event that the original data is lost or damaged.

Example 1: You can do a full back up of all of your computer data.

Example 2: You can also do a full back up of a single drive.


A function is a type of sub-program designed to return a value that the program will use. 

Example 1: =SUM(A5:A8)

Example 2: =AVERAGE(A5:A8)

Focal Point

The Focal Point is the area where the creator wants the readers eyes to be focused.

Example 1: A large arrow may point to a focal point of a poster.

Example 2: Large, bold text will make the text become a focal point.

Frame Rate

Frame Rate (expressed in frames per second) is the frequency rate or speed at which consecutive images (called frames) are displayed.  The term applies to film and video cameras, computer graphics and motion capture systems.  Examples would be 6, 12 or 24 fps (Frames Per Second)

Example 1: A lower frame rate  may appear jittery and slow.

Example 2: A faster frame rate will appear smoother and faster.

Frames Per Second (FPS)

FPS stands for Frames Per Second and is the amount of frames that are seen per second. Some common values are; 6, 12, 24, 30, 54 and 60.

Example 1: A lower FPS may appear jittery and slow.

Example 2: A faster FPS will appear smoother and faster.


Frames are the individual still images that, once put in a long sequence, form a moving image image like an animation or video. 

Example 1: A single frame will appear as a single image.

Example 2: Multiple frames viewed in a single second will appear like a moving image.

File Server

A file server is a computer connected to a LAN network that contains files to be shared by other computer devices connected to that LAN. 

Example 1: The cloud stores files on a file server.

Example 2: All files for a website are stored in a file server.

Final Testing

Final testing is the test stage that happens when the program or application creation has been completed. This testing can be tested by users of the program.

Example 1: Angus released a new program and Herbert used the program and found a bug and reported the issue.


Global Positioning System (GPS)

A satellite-based system that pinpoints your geographical location.  The system is made up of 24 GPS satellites orbiting the Earth.  These satellites are controlled by a number of Earth Stations around the world.

Example 1: GPS is used for tracking planes.

Example 2: GPS is used for navigation in electronic mapping systems such as your car SatNav.


Genre is the term used to categorise the type of content the viewer is seeing. 

Example 1: Horror

Example 2: Sci-Fi

Example 3: Comedy


A graphic is a final product, that is made from multiple assets and/or pieces of text.

Example 1: An image

Example 2: A video

Graphical User Interface (GUI)

A Graphical User Interface or GUI, is the layout the end user interacts with. Graphics means buttons, pictures, images, icons, etc.

GUIs are created to make using the product or service easy and intuitive. Windows is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) as it has buttons, icons, and pictures you click on. DC360 is a Graphical User Interface (GUI) as it has buttons you click on. Python is not as it is lines of code, not graphics.

Example 1: How the home screen on your phone is laid out, with the battery, mobile and wi-fi connection, and time all at the top. You tap links on your phone, this is a GUI.

Example 2: How a website, like Amazon, is displayed with the graphics and icons, this is a GUI.

Example 3: When you are in the supermarket and you use the self-service checkouts. You tap the screens, this is a GUI.

Global Variable / Constant

A global variable / constant is a value that is able to be accessed anywhere cross the code in a program. These values can also be accessed in the subprograms.

Example 1: 'Admin' = 'User 1'

Example 2: 'Zero' = 0

GPS location

GPS location is what is used to get a users current location on the planet. GPS location is calculated by using latitude and longitude coordinates to pinpoint the exact position. 

Example 1: My GPS location is used to give me directions.

Example 2: My GPS location can be used to show where a photo was taken.



HTML stands for Hypertext Markup Language. Although many call it a programing language it's actually a Markup Language that uses TAGS to build websites.

Example 1: Most websites were coded in HTML but there are other ways of making websites.

Example 2: HTML codes the content of the site, whereas CSS can make it look nicer and more modern.

Example 3: HTML 5 is the newest version of HTML.


The tags define how the information on the web page will look. Websites start with the word HTML in these special brackets >. You can put letters between these > special tag brackets to format the text. B is for bold, U for underline, I for italic, and more. You must remember to switch these tags off else everything will be in bold, underline, and italic. To switch a tag off you use the / followed by the letter inside the > tags.

Example 1: <H3> to put the content as a 3rd level heading </H3>

Example 2: <B> to put the content in bold </B>


Hexadecimal is a number system. Hexadecimal starts at 0-9 and then letters are added.

Hexadecimal is most commonly seen in colour systems. 

Example 1: F1353 = 987987

Example 2 1869F = 99999

HDD (Hard Disk Drive)

A Hard Disk is a large-capacity, secondary storage disk that stores all your information, programs, games, files, etc. At the time of writing a 12TB HDD was available, in 2022, though most are less. Secondary storage devices retain the information when the power is turned off. A hard disk drive (HDD) has moving parts so it's slower than an SSD and it makes noises with vibrations as the disk spins.

Example 1: Herbert's My Documents folder is his hard disk drive (HDD). He uses this to save all his work, if the power goes off, his work is safe.

Example 2: As well as an internal hard disk drive (HDD) you can also purchase an external drive. Both will allow you to save work and back up your files. Ignot backs up all his files to an external hard disk.

Example 3: Murgatroyd has a new mobile phone. A hard disk drive (HHD) is no good for her mobile phone or any other video or sound device for that matter, as the disk makes a noise and vibrates as it spins. This would spoil the recording or make it hard to hear when talking on the phone.


High Level Lanugage

A High-level language is a programming language such as Python, which is designed to be very person friendly, with a grammar that is easy to understand. 

Example 1: C++

Example 2: Java

Host / Hosting

A host is the Internet Service Provider (ISP) providing server space for a web site.

Example 1: BT

Example 2: Sky


Hardware is the physical components that are used.

Example 1: A tablet.

Example 2: A hard-drive.

Hardware Standards

Hardware standards are the rules and guidelines to asses whether a specific appliance hits the hardware requirements to do the intended purpose.

Example 1: Plug sockets must be tested against hardware standards.

Example 2: Power supplies must be checked against hardware standards to ensure they are safe for use.


Homeworking is the act of taking work place activities back to the home environment.

An example of homeworking is when the teacher asks you to complete a task at home.



The name given to a variable or program client used to uniquely identify a program element in the code.

Example 1: 'name' instead of 'variable1'.

Example 2: 'fun_add' instead of 'function3'.


A digital interactive, artificial environment designed to engage the user completely in an experience - a 'world' within which a user can immerse themselves.  Often using three-dimensional headset technology.

Example 1: Surround sound makes it so you can hear where the sound comes from, making it more realistic.

Example 2: VR headsets are immersive because you can look around by moving your head.

Incremental Backup

To make a backup of files that have changed since the last full backup was made.

Example 1: Since a full backup was made a month ago, only files that have changed in the last month need to be backed up.

Example 2: No backup has previously been made, so this system needs a full backup rather than an incremental backup.

Input Device

An Input Device is a hardware device used to send data to a computer system.  So users can communicate and feed instructions (eg by keyboard and mouse) and data to computers for processing, display, or storage.

Example 1: Keyboard

Example 2: Mouse

Internet Protocol (IP)

The network layer protocol which delivers network packets within a LAN or WAN.

Example 1: There are a number of layers to the protocol.

Example 2:


An interpreter is a computer program that executes or performs instructions written in a programming or scripting language, without requiring them previously to have been compiled into a computer language program.

Example 1: Ruby

Example 2: MATLAB

Integrated Circuit

An Integrated Circuit is a single component that can be soldered onto an electronic board (motherboard for example) that connects the chip to other chips or the rest of the device.

Example 1: A motherboard is an integrated circuit.

Example 2: RAM sticks have integrated circuits.


To look at and review the provided information and take the relevant information from it.

Example 1: Take directions and take the ETA as that could be the most relevant to you.

Example 2: Looking at a full ingredients list and only selecting the ones you need to buy.


ISO is a setting on a camera which determines the sensitivity to the light levels.

Example 1: ISO 100 is low so will appear darker.

Example 2: ISO 800 is higher so will appear brighter.


When you illustrate something, you add images or information to support the story provided for the product.

Example 1: Comics illustrate the story.

Example 2: Many presentations will contain illustrations to help solidify a point.


The action of entering data into a computer system.ready to be processed.

Example 1: A key being pressed on a keyboard will be processed so that it shows on the screen.

Example 2: If you click an icon or menu with your mouse, this is also an input.

Example 3: Other ways to input are via voice, touch, and gesture control.


Improvements are what is needed to make something better.

Example 1: Changing the text size to make it readable.

Example 2: Fixing bugs so the program is usable.

Input Validation

Input Validation is where checks are done against user data which has been entered into a program to check for accuracy and it's in the correct data format.

Example 1: Checking a name hasn't been entered as a bunch of numbers.

Example 2: Checking a date is in the correct format.


Objects that are on a document.

Example 1: Any textboxes.

Example 2: Any images.

Invalid Data

Invalid Data is data that cannot be processed and a program will not accept.

Example 1: String type required instead of an integer.

Example 2: DD-MM-YYYY instead of MM-DD-YYYY.


An Integer is a whole number. Integers do not have a decimal point.

Example 1: 1, 2, and 3 are all integers.

Example 2: Making 4.7 into an integer would give a result of 4 as no rounding takes place The removal of .7 is called truncating.

Insertion Sort

Insertion sort is something which repeatedly compares each item in a list with the previous item, and it then inserts it into the correct position. 

Example 1: In a list 1 2 3 5 7 6 8 9, 5 and 7 would get checked but not swapped because they are in the correct order, but not the correct place.

Example 2: 7 and 6 are not in the correct order, so would get swapped.


Iteration is the repetition (repeating) of a task until a certain criterion is met, typically getting successively closer to finding the solution to a problem.

Example 1: A lift can hold 10 passengers A while loop keeps the door open until 10 is reached, then closes the lift door.

Example 2: A for loop is another example of iteration, see for loop in the glossary..

Iterative Testing

Iterative Testing is the program cycle of design, development and testing of a program. 

Example 1: Angus completed part of this program and starts testing it with different input data to ensure, it does not crash (Syntax Error) and that it does not give an incorrect answer (Logical Error).

Example 2: A program designed to turn decimal numbers into integers produces a result of 4.7 from the input of 471 The code is then altered and tested again until the correct result of 4 is achieved every time.

IP (Address)
An Internet Protocol (or IP Address) is a unique identification address assigned to network devices to enable connection to the server and the internet.

Example 1:

Example 2:



An input device often used to play games like flight simulators.

Example 1: A game controller.

Example 2: See the image below.

joystick 98408 1280


Java is one of the many programming languages. It is a high-level language which means it is easier to understand. Java was created in 1995 and is still widely used nowadays. There is an old version of Minecraft using Java. It is called Minecraft Java edition.

Example 1: Java is a class-based language, which means it uses classes to format text.



A keyboard is the main input device for a computer or laptop.  The QWERTY keyboard is ideal for allowing computer operators to touch type at a speed of over 70 words a minute.

Example 1: Laptops have physical hardware keyboards.

Example 2: Phones have digital on-screen keyboards.

keyboard 34176 1280



LAN stands for Local Area Network. This is a network that is in the same building or on the same site.

Example 1: All devices in the same house are on a single LAN.

Example 2: A school network will be a LAN as it is all on the same site.


A set of network protocols grouped together.  OSI (Open Systems Interconnection) is a reference model for how applications communicate over a network.

Example 1: Application layer is the layer where users can interact.

Example 2: Transport layer is where data is transported to a server.

Linear Search

A very basic search algorithm, it compares each value in a sorted list, one at a time until the match is made.

Example 1: If there is a list of 1-5,000 and you are searching for the number 4,999. It will check all values from 1 until it reaches 4,999.

Example 2: If searching for 'Richard' in a list of names, it will search every name in A-Q first.

Logic Diagrams

A graphical representation of a project or activity, using formal logic.

Example 1: I used a logic diagram to visualise how my program actually works.

Example 2: Using the logic diagram, I found errors in my logic so I could fix it.

Logic Error

A fault or error in a program that does not stop the program from running (executing) but causes the wrong answer to be given.

Example 1: If your program had to take the price of the shopping and subtract the discounts (shopping - discount) but you added instead, the program would still run but would give an incorrect total.

Lossless Compression

Lossless compressions use an algorithm to compress data, without the loss of quality, and then reconstruct it without data loss.

Example 1: PNG for images.

Example 2: FLAC for audio.

Lossy Compression

Compression where the file size is reduced, by permanently removing some data from the files, such as duplicated data, e.g. if you compress an image this way, you may find the edges become jagged or the picture becomes pixelated. 

Example 1: JPEG for images.

Example 2: MP3 for audio.


Legislation is law, or a collection of laws.

Example 1: Copyright laws.

Example 2: Intellectual Property Rights.

Least Significant Bit (LSB)

Least Significant Bit (otherwise known as LSB) has the lowest value and is the first number on the right of an 8-bit binary sequence.

Example 1: 01110011

Example 2: 10100110

Local Variable/Constant

A value that can only be referred to within the sub-program in which it is declared. In Python, a sub-program is a function known as a def.

Example 1: A local variable that is declared within a function will only be used within that single function.

Example 2: The opposite of a local variable is a global variable, this is one that can be accessed by the whole program.

Low level languages

Low-level languages are programming languages which are closer to direct instructions in which a computer will be able to understand.

Example 1: Assembly

Example 2: Machine Code


A loop is a sequence of instructions that will be continually repeated until a specific condition is met. The most common loops are for loops, where the loop will be repeated a specific number of times based upon the loop condition, and while loops, where the loop will be repeated whilst a specific condition holds and it will not be executed if the loop condition is not met.

Example 1- for loop that will print the numbers 1-10

for x = 1 to 10
     print x

Example 2 - while loop that prints the numbers 1-5

i = 1
while i < 6:
    print i
    i = i +1



A mouse is a pointing device that can be used to move a pointer around the screen so you can click on icons.  You single click to select and double click to activate.  A roller is often included so you can scroll up and down the screen.

Example 1: Clicking the left mouse button allowed me to select a document on my desktop.

Example 2: Moving the mouse forward on the desk moved the cursor on the screen upwards.

Machine Code

A low level programming language. Machine code is able to execute commands directly, no translation is required.

Example 1: Instructions for the CPU are managed via machine code.

Example 2: The location of files on a hard-disk is managed by machine code.


Malicious software, designed to steal information or damage your files by deleting or infecting your system with viruses, worms, trojan horses or spyware.

Example 1: I clicked to download some free music and some malware was installed at the same time without me knowing. (Always use trusted sites.)

Example 2: I lost all my files and photos because some malware took over my PC.

Media access control

Media access control (or MAC address) is a unique identifier hardwired into all network devices at the time of manufacture.

Example 1: Networks are able to identify my device using its unique MAC address.

Example 2: Some networks require approval of MAC addresses so unknown devices can't access them.

Memory Address Register

This register stores the address of the next instruction or the next data item required by the CPU.

Example 1: The CPU can check the memory address register for its next instruction.

Example 2: The memory address register contains instructions for all sorts of memory allocation locations.

Memory Data Register

A register in the CPU that stores data being transferred to and from the immediate access storage.

Example 1: The data which is being stored in the register is in the process of being transferred from the memory to the central processor.

Example 2: This is a temporary storage location for data, it is volatile memory.

Merge sort

Merge sort is an algorithm where data is repeatedly split into halves until single items are left, and then reassembled in the correct order.

Example 1: A list of numbers will be split up into groups of 1 number each, then ordered correctly back in to a single group.

Example 2: A list of words will be split into 1 word groups before being reassembled in alphabetical order.

Mesh network

A mesh network is a network topology where every device is connected to every other device on the network.

Example 1: A Home Wi-Fi network

Example 2: Providing a consistent wireless network to hospitals


Extra information stored within a file.

Example 1: When a photo is taken, the metadata stored will include the time and date.

Example 2: Documents have metadata such as the date it was created, the date it was last edited etc.


Multimedia is something created using a combination of different media types.

Example 1: Images.

Example 2: Videos.


Modulus is a pseudocode arithmetic operator, which is able to return the remainder after a division.

Example: 17 mod 5 = 2

Example: 13 mod 6 = 1

Most Significant Bit (MSB)

Most Significant Bit (otherwise known as MSB) has the largest value and is the first number on the left of an 8-bit binary sequence.

Example 1: 10100110 (MSB is 1)

Example 2: 0110010 (MSB is 0)


Multitasking is where a computer is able to complete multiple processes at the same time.

Example 1: Deleting files from the recycle bin, whilst saving a Word document.

Example 2: Copying files from one location to another.



Not is an operator in Boolean Logic, If you searched the Internet for Cat NOT Dog, the web pages that come up would contain the word Cat but would not contain the word Dog.  Any pages that contain both words would NOT be displayed.

Example 1: Searching Boat NOT ship will return images of smaller boats. 

Example 2: Searching Dog NOT animal will return images of toy dogs, not real-life dogs for example.


A network is a series of computers connected together.  There are different types of networks, Bus, Ring, Star and Mesh are but a few.  You can learn about networks in the Network unit.

Example 1: My computer is connected to a local network so I can easily share files with my colleagues.

Example 2: The internet is hosted in a massive network, anyone can access it from anywhere.



Non-Volatile is where the data is saved even if the power goes off. A Hard Disk Drive (HHD) or Solid State Drive (SSD) are examples of non-volatile memory. Others include SD Cards and memory sticks. They are also referred to as Secondary Storage. RAM, Cache, and Registers are volatile so data is lost if the power goes off, so save onto your HDD or SSD regularly so your work is safe if there is a power cut.

Example 1: The hard-disk drive |HDD) is non-volatile and secondary storage. It can be used to save your work so that when the power goes off the data is saved.

Example 2: The solid-state drive (SSD)is faster than an HDD, again it is non-volatile and secondary storage. It can be used to save your work so that when the power goes off the data is saved.

Example 3: SD Cards and Memory sticks are also non-volatile and secondary storage.


Network Forensics

Software or hardware that monitors and/or records network traffic to analyse/block any potential network attacks.

Example 1: Software can look at devices connected to a network and see devices that may be causing harm.

Network Policies

A set of rules that all users within a network environment should follow.

Example 1: All users on a network should use a secure password.

Example 2: Some networks prevent downloading third-party software.

Network Attached Storage

An extra hardware storage device attached to the network for users to share or store data.

Example 1: Because I use network attached storage, I can access the files on any device that is connected to the network.

Example 2: It is easier to upgrade the storage capacity of a NAS.


In binary, a nibble is 4bits (half an 8-bit in the binary sequence).

Example 1: 0111

Example 2: 0010

Normal Data

Acceptable data that a program can process.

Example 1: The normal data type for a username would be a string.

Example 2: The normal data type for an age would be an integer.


Narrative is the term used to explain a story or events by speaking them or writing it down.

Example 1: The story must follow the narrative.

Example 2: The comic book has images to help progress the narrative.


Finding your way around a website or the way in which an interactive multimedia product directs a user through content via a series of buttons and links.

Example 1: Search boxes can help you navigate the web.

Example 2: Buttons and hyperlinks help you navigate web pages.



Operators in Boolean Logic are things that combine two or more factors in a specific way.

Example 1: x AND y

Example 2: x OR y


This is a Boolean Logic operator.  OR means 1 or the other or both. In basic terms, OR means "At least one of them".  If you ask for Ice Cream OR Cheesecake, then if you get both, that is still at least 1 of them.

Example 1: Boat OR Car will return pictures with either a boat or a car in, not necessarily ones with both.

Example 2: Dog OR Animal will return pictures with either a dog or an animal in, not necessarily ones with both.


Open Source

Open Source software means that the code used to create the program can be used by anyone. You can modify it, improve on it and update it.  Open source software often has people offering to help improve the code and add new features.

Example 1: Open Office

Example 2: VLC Media Player


Output Devices

Devices that output information from a computer.

Example 1: Monitor

Example 2: Printer-plotter

Operating System (OS)

An operating system is a software that is designed to install on hardware for the user to install and allow programs to be run, and manage hardware devices, and manage files and folder structures.

Example 1: Windows

Example 2: Android

One-dimensional array

A data structure consisting of a collection of common elements. It is a single list.

Example 1: A shopping list (Bread, Cakes, Eggs, Milk).

Example 2: A guest list for a party (Angus, Herbert, Murgatroyd, Penny).

Overflow Error

An overflow error is to do with a computer trying to process data which is bigger than the register can cope with. When this is exceeded the computer will report an overflow message.

Example 1: If a computer tries to process a number which is larger than the space in the register an overflow error is reported.

Example 2: Let's say you put all your books into your bag ready for school You remember you have PE and you need to take your kit as well. Your school bag is already full so trying to put your kit into the bag won't fit, this causes an overflow error message.


To overwrite is to replace data with new or updated data.

Example 1: Overwriting a file as it has had some amendments made to it.

Example 2: Overwriting a file due to it needing to be started again.


Onomatopoeia. is the process of creating a word that phonetically imitates, resembles the sound it describes.

Example 1: Meow

Example 2: Clap 


The origin of something is where it started, or where it came from.

Example 1: Did it start here?

Example 2: Or did it start here? 


Output is where data is processed by a computer system, to which it is then returned to the user.

Example 1: When a letter is pressed on a keyboard, the output is from what you seen on the screen.

Example 2: You can input a calculation into a calculator, the answer to the equation will be the output.



This is a large device that uses an arm to grab pens to draw precisely on a very large piece of paper.

Example 1: An architecture firm will use a plotter to draw blueprints.

Example 2: Engineers will also use plotters to draw large blueprints.

Program Counter

This is one of the elements of the CPU. Its main function is to keep count of those jobs or instructions that have been done already and what still needs to be done.

Example 1: The program counter contains the main memory address location of the next instruction that the CPU will fetch and then execute.

Example 2: If the program counter were to fail, the CPU would not know which instruction to perform next.

Personal Computer

A personal computer often known as a desktop computer as it is usually sat on a desk ready for use.

Example 1: Dell makes PCs.

Example 2: A MacBook is still a PC as it is a computer for personal use.

computer 158675 1280


A password is one way of securing your account. A secure password would contain, Uppercase Letters, Lowercase Letters, Numbers and a Symbol.

Example 1: Password1234 would be a weak passwords.

Example 2: X15c?Pl09x5 would be an example of a strong password.


Privacy Setting

Privacy Settings restrict the information that others can see about you. 

Example 1: You can change your privacy settings on Facebook so no-one can see where you live.

Example 2: You can change the settings on DC360 so only your study buddies can see your posts.


Packet Switching

When data is sent over a network or the internet, information is not sent as one big file, instead, they are broken down into smaller packets and then reassembled at their destination.

Example 1: A single image may be broken into 10 packets before sending.

Example 2: A movie may have to be reassembled from 1000's of smaller packets.


Parameters are variables or conditions which are set in a program.

Example 1: The default value for a calculator may be set to 0.

Example 2: If something is added to a cart, the default quantity parameter maybe set to 1.

Pattern Recognition

Pattern recognition is the process of recognising patterns by using a pattern learning algorithm.

Example 1: 2, 4, 6, 8 has a pattern of adding 2.

Example 2: 1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 13 has a pattern of adding the two previous numbers together.

Penetration Testing

A test to search for vulnerabilities within a computer system, to test if it can be exploited for criminal purposes.

Example 1: Testing to see if a database of usernames and passwords can be hacked.

Example 2: Testing to see if entering gibberish into the password field allows it to be hacked into.


Permissions can be set on individual files or folders to allow or block specific users to access / view / read / write / delete or change the files.

Example 1: User 1 has permissions to access, view and read a file, this means he can open up and see the content inside the file, but cannot change it in any way.

Example 2: User 2 has permissions to access, view, read, write and delete the file. This means they can do all the things user 1 can do, but can also edit the file contents in any way they wish.


Pharming is a cyber attack that takes control of a website and redirects it to another website or even a fake site. This is achieved by modifying users DNS entries. 

Example 1: Users could be directed to a website looking like their email login, but it is just to trick you into entering your login details.

Example 2: The above example is even more dangerous when it is for a bank account.


Phishing is a way of a fraudster impersonates you or your organisation, and asking you to answer questions so you divulge your password bank details or other personal details.

Example 1: You could receive emails impersonating your school admin, trying to get you to share personal information.

Example 2: You should always be careful when receiving unknown emails as they could be phishing scams.

Primary Key

A unique field in a database, that can be identified but cannot be repeated.

Example 1: A database containing details of clients first and last names may use a primary key consisting of a unique identifier such as a Customer ID. Only one client could be linked to any one Customer ID and the number should never repeat.

Example 2: Primary Keys can be used to keep identities anonymous if required for data protection.

Private Key

A Private Key is a password that you would use to open a message or file that is encrypted.

Example 1: When content is sent via an encrypted web protocol, a private key is used to ensure content is encrypted, the recipient of the data uses the senders public key to decrypt the or file.

Example 2: If someone discovered the private key, they would be able to gain access to the encrypted file.


A Procedure is a series of programming instructions that does a specific task. One or Several procedures would make up a complete computer programme.

Example 1: A procedure may be produced as a result of software development, where the programmers have identified a set of sub-programs/instructions that, when grouped together, perform a function that could be useful across other projects in future development. Such as a procedure that renders a 3D image, this procedure may be useful across any project/software that requires development of 3D imaging.

Example 2: A calculator app may use procedures to calculate a longer equation, taking each addition or multiplication as a separate subtask.


Proprietary is the owner, either the individual or the company that created it, usually protected under a trading name and purchased through a purchased licence.

Example 1: If a company creates an image for use in it's online blog, that image is proprietary. If someone else wanted to use that image, they would need to abide by the license associated with it.

Example 2: Proprietary software is software licensed by a particular company that developed it.


A Protocol simply means an agreed way or agreed set of rules to do something. Created for network compatible devices to allow effective communications over a network.

Example 1: You school will have a fire safety protocol, this is a set of rules that should be followed in the case of a fire.

Example 2: TCP/IP is the most commonly used internet protocol, these are the rules of how networks can function.


A simple programming language using simple English terms to write a program. Pseudocode may be written in many ways, and is usually informed by the programming language that the person writing the pseudocode uses.

Example 1: Pseudocode will often use simple words like IF and ELSE

Example 2: Rather than labelling variables properly, pseudocode will often be much shorter so just number them accurately.



Public Encryption Key

Used to encrypt a message that is sent over the internet and it prevents anyone from looking at it in transit. Then it can only be opened by someone who has the Private Encryption Key.

Example 1: A message being sent over the internet is first encrypted using the recipients public key, they are then able to decrypt the message using a private key that nobody else has.

Example 2: If someone received the public encryption key alone, they would not be able to access the data.


Python is a High Level, general-purpose programming language. High-Level means that it is close to English.

Example 1: Python is a general-purpose programming language used in many different types of software projects, many of which you may have heard of.

Python has been used in areas such as data for science, machine learning, web development, financial analysis, desktop applications, business apps, scripting, utility software, and much more.

Example 2: Elements of the following popular solutions were developed using or as a result of Python: Youtube, Dropbox, Google, Quora, Instagram, Spotify, Reddit, and Yahoo Maps. (There are many more too!)

Example 3: Python is a very popular programming language.

Pixels Per Inch (PPI)

PPI stands for Pixels Per Inch, which is a property of an image stating how many pixels in every inch of the image. This is the digital equivalent of DPI.

Example 1: Saving at a low PPI will have less detail.

Example 2: Saving at a high PPI will have more detail.


A Panel is the box or container used to contain one scene in a comic strip.

Example 1: A single page may contain 6 panels.

Example 2: In panel 2, the hero glared at the villain. In panel 3, they started charging at each other.


A peer-to-peer network is a kind of network where all computers connected to it act as both clients and servers.

Example 1: File-sharing websites often use peer-to-peer.

Example 2: Video-conferencing software like Skype uses P2P.


A peripheral is any piece of external hardware that is connected to a computer, that isn't a CPU or memory device and adds additional functionality.

Example 1: A monitor/screen for outputting video is a peripheral.

Example 2: A computer mouse or keyboard are input peripherals.


PHP (Hypertext Preprocessor) is a general-purpose scripting language used in web development.

Example 1: PHP allowed me to add some really cool stuff like dynamic animations to my website.

Example 2: I combined my HTML site with PHP to help with the backend database.

Physical Security

Physical Security refers to the act of preventing damage or theft to important network equipment or data by physically removing the ability to access to it.

Example 1: Ensuring equipment and data are located in secure rooms inside a building using locks on door with access restrictions.

Example 2: Employing security to prevent attackers from being able to physically access the building.

Primary Memory

Primary memory is the space the computer uses to run your programs.

Example 1: Hard disks are often too slow to be used as primary storage.

Example 2: RAM is much faster and can be used to run programs.


Processing refers to any calculations or operations that are performed on data that has been inputted into a system.

Example 1: Logical and arithmetic processes inside the CPU, performed by the ALU and accumulator on data during the fetch-execute cycle.

Example 2: The faster your CPU can process calculations, the faster your computer will be able to complete tasks like running programs.

Pixel Dimensions

A combination of pixels wide by pixels high.

Example 1: 400 px x 700 px

Example 2: 1920 px x 1080 px



A Quotient is an answer to a division calculation. In other words, when you divide one number by another number, the answer is a quotient.

Example 1: 10 ÷ 2 is 5, in this case, 5 is the quotient.

Example 2: 21 / 3 is 7, in this case, 7 is the quotient.



Stands for Random Access Memory. RAM is fast and called Working Memory. Your computer cannot run a file or game from the hard drive, it must move it into RAM so it can then be used. Increasing the amount of RAM will allow your computer to run faster. The gold areas are the connectors and the black are the storage. RAM is primary storage and volatile memory. When the power goes off any work that was not saved is lost.

Example 1: When you want to play a game, the game is transferred from the hard drive to the RAM. Then the computer can run the game and you can play it. If the power goes off before you have saved your game you will lose your current progress.

Example 2: RAM (Primary storage). RAM is volatile, meaning when you turn the computer off, anything that was stored in RAM is lost.

Example 3: Penny has been working on her PowerPoint presentation. She saved her work 5 minutes ago, this means the work was saved onto the hard drive. She then wanted to make some more changes so the file was moved back into RAM so she can make the changes. The power has just gone off, this means that any changes made since she last saved have been lost.


Ransomware is a piece of software (like a virus) that locks you out of a computer system until a ransom is paid to unlock it.

Example 1: In 2018, the FBI's Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) received 1,493 ransomware complaints that cost victims over $3.6 million. This does not account for lost business, time, wages, files, equipment, or third-party remediation costs. 

Example 2: A well-known example of ransomware is the WannaCry ransomware, an encrypting ransomware computer worm, which was initially released on 12 May 2017. The ransom demand ranged from $300 to $600 to be paid in the cryptocurrency Bitcoin. 

It targets computers running outdated versions of the Microsoft Windows operating systems by exploiting the EternalBlue vulnerability in the Server Message Block (SMB) protocol. 

This allowed the ransomware to spread without the victim having to do anything. 

Real (or float)

Real (or float) is a data type used in programs.  A float or real is a decimal number. For your information, an integer is a whole number, you can visit that in this glossary.

Example 1: 145834.56 is an example of a real/float number, as it contains a decimal point.

Example 2: 0.00000012 is another example of a real/float number.

Example 3: 21.0 is another example of a real/float number.

Example 4: 19 is not real/float number, it has no decimal place so it is an integer. You can look up integers in this glossary.


A record is composed of fields in a database. A set of records makes a file.

Example 1: Records are used to store data in an accurate, replicable way.

Example 2: In your school, the teachers will have access to your record which contains your name, address, contact details, grades allergies, and much more..

Example 3: In the following example, each row is a record. Each record is made up of several fields (columns) which contain some information that relates to the record.

Relational Database

A Relational Database, is multiple tables linked together. In all databases, including a flat database (one or an unliked table database), each table has a primary key field for each row., this is unique and cannot be repeated For example, in your database, you might have all the members of your gym. Each member has a unique ID Number, in case 2 people have the same name.

A relational database (one with more than one linked table) has the same but it also has what we call foreign keys. Foreign keys are primary keys from another table and are used to link the tables together and form a relationship, hence the name relational databases. In our gym example, you might have your member table which is a list of all your members, and a gym class table which is a list of all the classes you run. The relationship allows you to assign members of your gym to the classes.

Example 1: In a relational database, each row in the table is a record with a unique ID called the primary key. The columns of the table hold attributes of the data, and each record for example first name, last name, date of birth, etc usually has a value for each attribute, making it easy to establish the relationships.

Example 2: You should look at the section on SQL as this allows you to search the database for information.

Example 3: In the following example, you can see how the unique IDs in each table are used to create a relational database.


The Resolution is the number of lines, pixels, and dots over your screen. A 'High Resolution' monitor means that it can display a larger number of pixels per inch (DPI).

Example 1: A lot of monitors are 1080p, meaning the resolution is 1920x1080.

Example 2: Digital images and videos. have resolutions too, the higher the resolution of an image, the better the quality of the image will be.

Example 3: 4K is 3840 pixels, this amount is twice as much as a normal HD TV, which is good anyway. 8K has even more pixels, it's 7680 pixels.


ROM - Read Only Memory is a chip with instructions that cannot change. The ROM contains the BIOS on your home computer. This tells the computer how to start up when you switch it on. This means that ROM is non-volatile as it retains the information once the power is off.

Example 1: Due to its permanent data storage nature, ROM is used in different types of embedded systems. An example of an embedded system would be your washing machine, sat nav, etc as these contain instructions and data that do not need to be changed.

Example 2: Embedded systems that use ROM are found in things such as TVs, microwaves, refrigerators, washing machines, calculators, printers, plotters, FAX machines, electronic toys, automatic doors, and many many more.  See Embedded Systems for more information.

Example 3: When you switch on your PC at home, it starts up, loads Windows, and ensures your keyboard, mouse, and monitor are working. This happens because the ROM has set all this in motion, it knows the hard drive, how much RAM you have, the fact a keyboard is connected, the operating system, and much more. It uses this information to make sure your computer starts correctly.

Example 4: If you were to unplug your keyboard and then switch your computer on, it would beep to say there was no keyboard.


A Router is a network device that connects networks together and allows them to communicate.

Example 1: If your home has internet (Wifi) there is a good chance you also have a router! The router connects your home network to the internet.

Example 2: Routers can also be used to segment networks, to provide protection as a firewall and to manually configure sharing of resources to streamline work environments in a business setting.

Run-Time Environment

A Run-Time Environment is a machine that programmers can test their software while it's running. In this environment where the programmer can track the instructions being processed by the program and debug any errors they encounter.

Example 1: Programmers can use the Run-Time environment to debug their programs.

Example 2: I used the Run-time environment to check that my program worked fully before publishing it.

Random Number Generation

Random Number Generation refers to the techniques used to generate random numbers whilst coding. Using either pseudocode or an actual coding language, the computer will generate a random number in a given range.

Example 1: Pseudocode to generate a random number between 1 and 100.

var rand = genRandomInt[1, 100]

Example 2: Code in Python to generate a random number between 1 and 100.

import random
num = random.randint(1, 100)

Refining Algorithms

Refining Algorithms refers to the process of making code more efficient and error-free throughout all stages of a program's development. Remember algorithms are a set of instructions. See Algorithms in this glossary for more information.

Example 1: Algorithms may be refined by making code more efficient, by either finding ways to perform the same functions with less code and calculations to be performed by the CPU, or via the removal of unnecessary code.

Example 2: Refining algorithms may mean making them more functional by thoroughly testing code and then identifying and removing errors.

Example 3: Remember algorithms are sets of instructions. For example, making toast. Is there a quicker way to do the same task?


Registers are quick-access memory locations found within the CPU. They are small and only store either memory locations or the actual data that is to be executed by the CPU.

Example 1: The Program Counter (PC) and Memory Address Register (MAR) are registers used to store both the next and current memory address locations to fetch instructions from.

Example 2: The Memory Data Register (MDR) is a register to temporarily store instructions that have been fetched from memory before the CPU executes them.

Example 3: See the diagram below and then look up Memory Data Registers (MDR) and Memory Address Registers (MAR) in this glossary for more information.



A scanner is a device that is used to read documents to a computer.  It can take a printed page and make it digital.  When OCR (Optical Character Recognition) software is used to scan the document, you can often then edit the words on the page. You must be careful of copyright, as it is illegal to use other people's work as your own without their permission.

Example 1: An office will use a scanner to back up any physical paperwork.

Example 2: A scanner could be used with a printer to create duplicates of a paper-based document like a photocopier.

SSD (Solid State Drive)

Solid State Drive (SSD) is a type of hard disk used in computers to store information when the power is turned off.  

Example 1: SSDs have no moving parts so are less likely to malfunction.

Example 2: SSDs are faster but more expensive.

Example 3: SSDs are quieter as they have no moving parts, this makes them ideal for mobile phones or video recording devices as you can't have noises or vibrations in the background.



The process where analogue is converted into digital.

Example 1: While sampling a sound wave, the computer takes measurements of this sound wave at a regular interval called sampling interval. Each measurement is then saved as a number in binary format.

Example 2: A high sampling rate means the file size will be bigger as there will be more binary numbers recorded, but the quality of the sound will be better. A low rate may mean some data will be lost between measurements.

Sampling Frequency

Sampling Frequency (Sampling Rate) - defines the number of samples per second when converting analog to digital.

Example 1: While sampling a sound wave, the computer takes measurements of this sound wave at a regular interval called sampling interval. Each measurement is then saved as a number in binary format.

Example 2: A high sampling rate means the file size will be bigger as there will be more binary numbers recorded, but the quality of the sound will be better. A low rate may mean some data will be lost between measurements.

Secondary Storage

Secondary Storage refers to devices that store programs and files that are not constantly available by the system in main memory. Secondary storage devices are non-volatile which means they retain the data if the power goes off. A hard Disk drive has moving parts so it's noisier and slower than a Solid State Drive (SSD). Other secondary storage devices include RW-CD, Memory Stick, and SD Cards.

Example 1: Hard disks (HDD) you can buy have large amounts of secondary storage space, usually between 100GB-12TB. They can vary in size and speed, with prices increasing as size and speed increase.

Example 2: Removable memory devices like Memory Sticks, RW-CD, and SD-Cards are secondary storage that you can save files to, and carry with you to use on another computer. RW-CDs can be easily scratched.


A question that the system asks you, that you need to answer before the next step can be carried out.

Example 1: The user may be asked to input an answer to a question, and the program will use an IF statement to determine the path to take depending on the user's answer.

Example 2: IF the user inputs "EXIT" THEN end the program, ELSE loop back to the beginning.


Carrying out tasks one by one, step by step.

Example 1: In programming, sequencing is ensuring that code is written in a way such that statements and functions are executed in the correct order, step by step so that errors are not encountered due to code being in the wrong order.

Example 2: In the following code, we would receive an error because the program tries to calculate the average before the numbers are given values.

average = 0

average = number1/number2

number1 = int(input("Enter the first number: “))

number2 = int(input("Enter the second number: "))

print("The average is ", +average)


Dedicated hardware or software system to provide critical services and functionality to devices connected to it.

Example 1: Web servers host web pages, and applications that are accessible via the internet. Web servers are the very basis of the internet.

Example 2: Database servers provide access to a database. Businesses use database servers to hold records of clients, as well as private company information.


The technique of someone who watches over your shoulder while you put your pin number in the cash machine, your password into your phone, or a password into your computer, in order to see personal information.

Example 1: Angus was withdrawing money from an ATM, unaware that the person standing behind him was watching over his shoulder. Angus later discovered someone had stolen his wallet, and somehow managed to access his bank account. The person who was shouldering Angus knew his pin number.

Example 2: Angus could have avoided this by ensuring no one was watching him, and by covering his hand whilst inputting his PIN.

Example 3: While at school, all your coursework will be stored on your computer. You must make sure your computer is secure with a password. If someone was to get into your account and delete your work, that would take a long time for you to do it all again.

Social Engineering

A range of methods used by fraudsters or criminals to access personal information, including blagging, phishing, pharming and shouldering.

Example 1: Blagging is The act of using believable scenarios to trick people into giving up personal information.

Example 2: Phishing is a way of a fraudster impersonates you or your organisation, and asking you to answer questions so you divulge your password bank details or other personal details.


Malicious software designed to secretly pass on your personal or financial information to a third party.

Example 1: Infostealers and Password stealers are spyware types designed to infiltrate a system, and collect personal information including passwords for things like bank accounts, social media and other personal information hat could be used to a third party's benefit.

Example 2: Not all spyware is as directly malicious. take Gator – this program would monitor the victim’s web surfing habits and use the information to serve them with better-targeted ads.

Star Network

A LAN (local area network) topology where there is a hub in the centre and all of the network devices are connected around it.

The central hub of a Star Network can connect to nodes of four types:

     1. Repeater or Hub

     2. Switch or Bridge

     3. Gateway or a Router

     4. A Computer

Example 1: The central hub can be a computer operating as a server if needed.

Example 2: The central hub in a star network is a single point of failure for all connected devices.

Example 3: Computers connected to this network are called nodes.


Storage Capacity

The maximum amount of data a storage device can hold. If you run out of storage space there are 4 solutions. You can buy a larger hard drive (HDD) or SSD and copy the data across, you can delete any files that are no longer needed, you can archieve files you don't use very often onto an external storage device, or you can add a second hard drive to increase space.

Example 1: A computer with a 500GB hard drive has a storage capacity of 500 gigabytes.

Example 2: A server with five 2TB hard drives has a storage capacity of 10 terabytes.

Example 3: Sometimes buying a second hard drive is easier than replacing your main one because the main one has the operating system on it. Getting a second hard drive and using it for all your files is often a better solution as it will free up space on your main hard drive.

Example 4: Deleting files that you no longer need is a great way of saving space Remember, once deleted you can't get them back.

Example 5: Archiving files that are not used anymore onto an external storage device will also free up space on your hard disk. The files can then be retrieved if needed in the future.

Streaming Services

Streaming Services can present shows, on demand to the user, in other words, in real time whenever they want. Examples of streaming services include Britbox, Netflix, Amazon Prime, Now TV, Disney Plus, Paramount, plus many others.

Example 1: Britbox, Netflix, Disney+, and more often have apps on smart TVs to access their services, you can also access many from a Sky or other satellite box.

Example 2: Xbox GamePass for videogames.

Example 3: You do not have to wait for a show to start, you can watch it at your convenience.


A string is a sequence of letters, numbers, and symbols, usually enclosed within quotation marks. A database field would use STRING when the field required both letters and numbers for example 23 Cherry Tree Lane. Numbers in a string field cannot usually have calculations performed on them, they must be converted to Integers or Floats first.

Example 1:  "hello world"

Example 2: "LKJH019283"

Example 3: In a database, an address field would use the data type "STRING" as it contains letters and numbers.



A Sub-Program is a program that can be run inside a larger computer program, this is done to save time and avoid repetition.

Example 1: The bold features in Word or PowerPoint are used a lot. so when you click on the bold button it calls the sub-program to perform that task.

Example 2: Angus could use a subprogram to reset the entire program back to its original settings if things went wrong.

Example 3: Penny has written a game that displays a scorecard at the end of each stage. She creates a sub-program because the code will be used regularly. She could then expand it to create a button the user should press to display the card at any time. This would use the same code.

Example 4: Python calls a sub-program a function or def.


Network hardware that connects multiple computers together - to be able to communicate with other computers. If you have a lot of devices in your school or company you will need several switches on your network to give enough ports for all devices to connect.

Example 1: All the computers at school are connected to a single switch, but depending upon the number of devices your school network will probably have several switches.

Example 2: Having more than one switch on your network will not normally slow your network down.

Example 3: A network switch allows individual devices to connect to each other.

Syntax Error

An error in a computer program, that usually results in it breaking the rules or grammar of the programing language. This error stops the program from working, in other words, it won't run until you fix it. This is because the computer can't understand it.

Example 1: Not putting a ':' or missing a bracket or " marks are examples of Syntax Errors.

Example 2: Spelling while as 'whil' is a syntax error because it causes the code to break. You know it means "while", but the computer does not.


A sitemap is a list of pages of a website. The map shows how each of the pages is connected to each other and how to get from one page to another via the links.

Example 1: A sitemap is used by its designers when planning its design.

Example 2: There are two types of sitemaps, they are HTML and XML.

Example 3: You can install software on your website to create the sitemap for you.


The programs, games, applications, and productivity tools are examples of software used by a computer. Software is something you cannot physically touch. You can touch the CD it comes on but you can't touch the software itself.

Example 1: System software such as Windows. We call it Operating System Software.

Example 2: Internet browsers such as Edge, Chrome, Opera, Firefox, Safari, etc are all referred to as browser software. 

Example 3: Microsoft Office, Your favorite graphics package, video editing, and even the calculator are all software programs. 

Example 4: The programs you write, for example, the ones you write in Python, are software programs. 

Standard Web Features

Simple and basic features which should be in every website.

Example 1: An easy-to-navigate menu with a site map.

Example 2: A simple, memorable and sensible web address.

Example 3: Accessibility options to make navigation easy for all. 

Example 4: Security to protect data if it's entered.

Story Flow

Refers to how a story moves. Think about introducing the characters, then adding the build-up to the action, then a big event followed by a resolution that all will be well.

Example 1: If a story flows well then the reader will be more engaged.

Example 2: If a story flows poorly, then the reader may struggle to follow the story.

Example 3: Signposting what may happen is a good way to build up excitement.

Structure Diagram

Structure Diagrams are used to represent a problem graphically and group it into smaller problems, using a top-level approach.

Example 1: I used structure diagrams to plan a complicated problem.

Example 2: The structure diagram showed smaller problems I could solve, which added together to solve the big issue.

Structured Query Language

A Structured Query Language is a language for programming made to create, edit and search databases. You use command words such as SELECT, FROM, WHERE, and ORDER BY. Order by can be ASC for Ascending (alphabetical order A-Z) or DESC for Descending (reverse alphabetical order Z-A). The asterisk is the (star key) and can be used to find parts of a field. "*house" would find, "big house, greenhouse" but would not find household" because the last letters must be "house".

Example 1: If Murgatroyd used SQL to find all customers with the lastName Smith from a database called Customers and put the list in order of firstName she would type :

SELECT firstName, lastName

FROM Customers

WHERE lastName ="Smith"

ORDER BY firstName (ASC)

Example 2: When you search for field names ie lastName you must type it exactly if they use capitals you do, if they don't you don't

Example 3: Angus writes SQL to find the first and last name of all members of a gym with a membershipDuration of more than 3 years, from a database called Members and put the list in reverse order of lastName:

SELECT firstName, lastName, membershipDuration

FROM Members

WHERE membershipDuration >=3

ORDER BY lastName (DESC)

Example 4: If you want to search for anything you can use what is called a wildcard, this is the * symbol. blue* would find all the items that start with "blue" but can end with anything for example "bluebottle".

Software Standards

Software Standards are agreed-upon methods that make it easier for people to build programs and software that work on different systems in different countries.

Example 1: File types and extensions need standards, such as MP3 which is a file format for audio files supported by most media-playing software.

Example 1: MP4 file types are for video with sound. Other include doc for Word documents, ppt for PowerPoint documents, etc.

Example 2: Web pages use the HTML standard, which is a markup language for creating websites.

Source Code

Source Code is the code that a programmer writes whilst developing a program, before it is compiled and turned into machine code.

Example 1: print("Hello World") is an example of source code. When compiled, a human would not be able to understand the purpose of this code as they can when it is source code. This code is clearly meant to print the words Hello World to the user.

Example 2: The source code is run through a compiler to turn it into machine code, also called object code, that a computer can understand and execute. Object code consists of 1s and 0s, so it isn't human-readable.


A sector is a hard disk term.

A hard disk is designed to hold lots of data, way more than the RAM on your laptop or computer, but a sector is a very special magnetic structure. If you were to look at it, it would look like a double 20 area on a dartboard, with two rings and two lines forming the "Sector". If you save a file and it cannot fit in one sector then a tag label is added to tell the computer where the remaining parts of the file are stored. This allows you to store very large files even though you have small sectors on your disk.

Example 1: A sector typically holds around 512 bytes of the user's data.

Example 2: A group of sectors is called a "Cluster"

Example 3: Ignot saves his Word document which is 820 bytes in size. This means it will take up 2 sectors on his hard drive and the first sector will tell the computer where the other part of the file is stored."




Test Plan

A written plan describing the basis for testing software. This includes the program tests, what you expect to happen, the actual results, as well as any errors, and how they were resolved. A really good test plan then has a column for retesting to check the errors have gone.

Example 1: Ignot used a test plan to check his program did what it was supposed to do, with no errors.

Example 2: Penny created a quiz game and one of her tests was to check that when players got a question correct, the score increased by 1.

Example 3: Test plans are used for Alpha testing, as this is done by the company before the software is given to a small group of users called BETA testers for a second check.

Third Party Applications

A Third Party Application is software that is created by a person or company that is not connected to your company.

Example 1: An Android phone comes with a camera app, but other camera apps are available to download, which were created by different people. These other camera apps are third-party software.

Example 2: Even though Windows doesn't come with Microsoft Office, it is still made by the same people so it is not third-party, but is instead first-party software.

Example 3: If you download a program from the Windows store which was NOT made by Microsoft, that would be a third-party application.


The topology is the basic layout of your network. It can also be an arrangement of physical equipment, such as computers or other network devices.

Example 1: With star topology, outer devices are connected to a central server in a star.

Example 2: With mesh topology, all devices are connected to other devices in a large web.


A semiconducting device on a silicon chip, joined together to form an integrated circuit to either amplify or switch electronic flow within the circuit it's placed within.

Example 1: Transistors allow circuits to function with logic.

Example 2: A transistor can let current pass, or prevent current from passing given a particular circumstance.


A translator is a piece of software that converts a computer program into machine code, designed so that the computer understands it. This means that we can write in a high-level language, close to English, and then the translater converts it to machine code so the computer and process it. There are 3 translators: Compilers, Assemblers, and Interpreters.

Example 1: IDEs will often include translators in the program.

Example 2: A program cannot function without being passed through a translator first, so the computer understands it.

Example 3: The translator converts the high-level code into machine code so we don't have to.


A Trojan is Malware, a piece of malicious software that is hidden in legitimate software, designed to run and cause damage to the hardware from the inside, install keyloggers, and usually sends criminally-intended information back to its creator.

Example 1: I accidentally downloaded a trojan and now I can't use my computer properly.

Example 2: I didn't know it was a trojan because it looked like legitimate software.

Example 3: Penny clicks to download some animation software because the screenshots looked really good. Sadly, it was trojan malware in disguise.

Truth Table

A representation of all combinations of potential values for inputs with their corresponding outputs, typically presented inside of a logic diagram.

Example 1: The truth table showed me what the expected outputs from my code will be.

Example 2: I could see that some outputs in the truth table were wrong, meaning the logic is wrong. In programming terms, we would call this a "Logic Error" This means the program will run but will give the incorrect result.

Two-dimensional array

A Two-Dimensional Array is an array where each component inside the array contains either its own array or a list of lists. It can be visualised as a grid or a table.

Example 1: An array that has links to further arrays within it would be 2D because there are 2 levels to the array.

Example 2: A list of names and their selected lottery numbers would be a 2D array since the numbers field contains a list.

Example 2: Usernames and Passwords.

Trace Table

A Trace Table is used to examine every line of code step by step, and then predict the result or results of the chosen tested algorithm.

Example 1: I used a trace table to see what a predicted output would be for a given input.

Example 2: Trace tables helped me to find errors in my logic.


USB Memory Stick

This is an external storage device.  A USB memory stick is classed as non-volatile and secondary storage. You can save your work on this device instead of your hard drive (HDD) / SSD or you can make a copy of your work to take away with you.

Example 1: Herbert saved his school work onto his memory stick so he could work on it at home.

Example 2: Angus carries his USB stick on his keys so he has it on him at all times.



Unicode is a character set that is designed to contain all currently known characters from all currently known languages.  Computers just deal with numbers.  They store letters and other characters by assigning a number to each one. It builds on the ASCII system.

Example 1: Emojis are also Unicode characters. U+1F60 is ?

Example 2: The word "Hello" is written U+0048 U+0065 U+006C U+006C U+006F

Example 3: Every symbol, including £, %, ! is represented by a Unicode.

User Access Levels

Users on a network are given a User Access Level. This controls what you can do and what documents you can see.

Example 1: A teacher may have access to the student's documents because they are on a higher user access level.

Example 2: Other students do not have access to each other's documents because they are on the same user access level.

Utility Software

Utility software is usually a small piece of software used to perform a specific task. Examples of this can include, ways of compressing the files, Anti-virus software, clean-up software, software to defragment your computer,

Example 1: To compress a file you would use a piece of utility software to compress it. Windows allows you to right-click on a file and compress it to a zip file.

Example 2: Defragmenting your hard drives (HDD), organises your files to make them load quicker. NOTE: You would never defrag an SDD as the lifespan of an SSD is partly determined by the number of read/writes and Defrag does a lot of that to re-organise the files.

Example3: Encryption software is another example that changes your files using a code to make it difficult for anyone intercepting it to read it.

User Management

The handling and organisation of multiple users on the same computer, inside the same operating system. The administrator can decide who has access to white parts of the system.

Example 1: Ignot had an account on his sister's laptop however he had different permissions than his sister as it was her laptop. She can also decide what access Ignot can have.

Example 2: School networks will have 100's of accounts, one for each student. They will have different access to that of a teacher.



Volatile means that when the power is turned off, the data will be lost. That is why you are told in class to save your work regularly. RAM, Cache, and Registers are all examples of volatile memory, they are also called Primary Memory. Saving work puts a copy of your work on the Hard Drive (HDD) or Solid State Drive (SSD), this is Secondary Memory which is non-volatile.

Example 1: RAM is a Volatile Memory.  Anything you have not saved when the power goes off will be lost. So save regularly.

Example 2: Volatile memory can be over-written in the background, so as you change your PowerPoint slide, RAM is overwritten with your new work.

Virtual Memory

Virtual memory is created on the hard drive (HDD) or SSD by the processor when your computer runs out of available RAM. This does slow down the computer as the hard disk or solid-state drive is a lot slower than the RAM.

Example 1: Ricky loads up a program that causes his RAM to become full To compensate part of his HDD or SSD is used as virtual memory. His computer starts to run slower as the HDD or SDD is a lot slower than RAM.

Example 2: A section of Ricky's SSD will be allocated for virtual memory each time he runs out of RAM.

Example 2: A solution is to increase the amount of RAM in your computer, this reduces the amount of virtual memory needed and your computer could run games faster.

Virtual Network

A software managed network, that is created inside of a physical network.

Example 1: A virtual network can be used to test updates to the physical network.

Example 2: A virtual network can easily change settings such as location of the physical networks.


A malicious piece of software usually hidden within another piece of software that attaches itself to files and replicates itself to infect other files. When an infected file is run it can cause damage, crash computers, delete files as well as corrupt and destroy data. Viruses can be spread in many ways, from emails, computer networks, memory sticks, downloadable files, or other removable media like SD Cards.

Example 1: Melissa is one well know virus from 1999, it was actually a macro. It attacked emails and Word documents and then spread. 

Example 2: ILOVEYOU virus was nicknamed the Love Bug email. Over 10 million Windows users were affected by this. It is wise to have anti-virus software installed.

Example 3: According to reports £33 billion in damages was caused by a virus called Mydoom in 2004.

Visual Basic

A high-level programming language. There is a cut-down version called Small Basic which is great to start learning from.

Example 1: Murgatroyd wanted to code a calculator and chose to use Visual Basic to write it.

Example 2: Visual Basic is a high-level programing language, which means it's easy to learn as it is close to English.

Von Neumann Architecture

John Von Neumann created the architecture of the computer system in the 1940s which still consists of input, output, memory, control, and the ALU. So we still use this principle today.

Example 1:  The ALU deals with all the calculations it stands for Arithmetic and Logic Unit.

Example 2: Von Neumann Architecture revolutionised how computers work.

Example 3: See the diagram below for an interpretation of the architecture.


A variable is a piece of data that is assigned a specific value. This value can either be assigned a predefined value or a variable value that can be created by a user, for example entering their name.

Example 1: Herbert is about to play a game, and he is asked to enter his name. When he enters his name, it is stored in a variable. The variable may be called player_name. This variable will be used each time the game needs to display the player's name.

Example 2: As Herbert plays his game he collected objects. His score increases as he collects objects. His score may be in a variable called score. 



WAN stands for Wide Area Network.  This is a network that is not just in the same building or on the same site, it is spread across a wide area. WAN is worldwide. The internet is a WAN. 

Example 1: WANs are used by travel agents. They have so many branches and they need their systems connected. After all, you can't have someone booking a seat on an aircraft in Newcastle while someone else in London is booking the same seat else you will be double booked.

Example 2: A wide area network is often referred to as any network that goes off-site, ie the entire city, country, or even the world, it is very broad.

Example 3: Large companies can use WANs to connect branches but these can also be called Metropolitan Networks.

Working Memory

Working memory is the space the computer uses to run your programs. RAM is mostly referred to as working memory. The hard disk is too slow to run programs so when you load a file, game, or program the computer moves the files into RAM so they can run.

Example 1: When Herbert plays his favourite game, the game is transferred from the Hard Disk Drive (HDD) or SSD to the RAM so the game can run.

Example 2: Working memory (RAM) is volatile so data is lost if the power goes off, that is why Penny saves her work regularly to the HDD or SSD. Once saved, if Penny wants to make more changes, the file must be moved back into RAM.

Example 3: RAM is much faster and is therefore used for working memory.

Wi-Fi Certified

Wi-Fi Certified is an internationally recognised way of approving hardware that has met the industry standard. This means that the hardware has the correct protocols, which are basically procedures of communication on a network.

Example 1: Routers must be WiFi Certified.

Example 2: All devices using Wi-Fi must be WiFi certified.


A Worm is a type of Malware. Malware means malicious software. Worms self-replicate, this means that you do not need to click on them to run them, they will run themselves. Remember they are created by people on purpose to cause damage. This means a worm can get into your email contacts and send itself to everyone on your contact list. Worms can also spread very easily across a network.

Example 1: A worm could access your WhatsApp, Skype, or Messenger system and send itself.

Example 2: It is best to have an Antivirus or malware protection program installed so that incoming files are scanned, this protects your device.

Example 3: One of the first worms was created back in 1988 and was called the Morris worm.


A process of creating and saving, new or existing data to a disk, or overwriting data already on the disk. Secondary storage includes Hard Disk Drive (HSS), Solid State Drive (SSD), SD Card, and Memory Stick (USB Stick).

Example 1: Angus saved his Word document (FILE, SAVE)) and it was written to the secondary storage (Solid State Drive or HDD).

Example 2: Penny has made changes to her PowerPoint. When she saves it, using the same filename, she is overwriting the old file with the newer version on her SSD or HDD.

Example 3: Herbert has also made changes to his PowerPoint, but he wants to keep the old one. So, when he saves it, he uses a different filename, this saves the newer version but keeps the old version as a copy. His SSD or HDD now contains 2 copies.


Parts that are not very good or that need to be improved. A system that is vulnerable, means it is open to attack from viruses, malware, or hackers.

Example 1: If a webpage is hard to read, that is a weakness, as visitors may not use it.

Example 2: Angus has put an anti-virus program on his computer to protect it from viruses and malware. This removes a weakness in his system.

Example 2: Ignot has installed a firewall on his computer to help prevent hackers from breaking in. This removes a weakness in his system.

Example 3: In none computer terms, an answer that isn't very clear in your exam, could also be a weak answer as you could lose marks.

White Balance

When you talk about graphics software, white balance is used to adjust colours to match the colour of the light source.

Example 1: A warm white balance may appear yellow.

Example 2: A cold white balance may appear blue.


A sequence that the activities will be completed. Step 1 will always be completed before Step 2. This is the workflow.

Example 1: Workflows prevent impossible steps being attempted..

Example 2: If Penny is making toast, she will NOT put jam on the bread before it goes into the toaster, that would not work. Instead, Penny follows the sequence of toasting the bread first, then adding the butter followed by the jam.

Web Server

A Web Server is software with some hardware that runs on a computer (called a server). When you type in a web address (HTTPS://www. etc) into your browser the web server receives the request, processes it, and then delivers the web page to your browser. Browers examples include Edge, Chrome, Opera, Firefox, Safari, and more.

Example 1: Tuppence is looking for recipes on the internet, she types in the web address of the website she has seen advertised and the web server receives this address, processes it, and then sends the web page to her browser.

Example 2: Web servers also work with SMTP emails which send emails as well as FTP for transferring files to and from the internet.

While loop

While is used to represent a loop in Python or Pseudocode that has a condition set at the start of it. You might be counting the cars in a car park or the number of people on a ride at a theme park. While the criteria of the while loop is NOT met, the loop will continue looping. Once the criteria IS met the loop will stop.

Example 1: A lIft can hold 8 people. At the start, our lift is empty


                       while people 8:

                        print("Please enter the lift")

                        people += 1

Example 2: You can even include an else statement to tell people when the lift is full.


                       while people 8:

                        print("Please enter the lift")

                        people += 1


                        print("Lift is full, doors closing")


Wired is the term used to describe the physical connection between devices. A wired connection restricts movement but gives you a much faster connection as there is no interference. In theory, a shorter ethernet cable gives a faster connection compared to one that is very very long ie over 100 metres. However, the difference between 2 metres and 10 metres would not really be noticeable. Just don't have the cable running all around the house from your PC to get to your router, use the quickest route.

Example 1: You can connect your computer to your router via a cable. This gives you a much faster connection with less interference.

Example 2: You can have wired mice or keyboards that plug into your computer. Modern keyboards and mice use USB ports.

Wired Equivalent Privacy (WEP)

This is the oldest and also happens to be the least secure standard of Wi-Fi internet encryption.

Example 1: WEP is less secure than WPA and WPA2.

Example 2: WPA replaced WEP as the standard in 2003.


The opposite of Wired, Wireless refers to the connection between devices without the use of cables. This is often cheaper, saves tripping hazards, and allows you to move around without being stuck with a cable. Your router at home gives out a wireless connection to all your devices. This wifi signal can be affected by walls, distance from the router, the microwave oven, and too many devices connected at the same time.

Example 1: Your Smart TV, DVD Play, Smart Speaker, Tablet, Smart Fridge, Smart Hoover, Smart Washer, Smart Oven, etc can all connect wirelessly to your router.

Example 2: Your connection speed is shared between all the devices connected, so if you have too many, each device will have a slower connection, this can mean your online game could run very slowly. Asking your parents if you can disconnect devices that do not need to be connected while playing your game, can solve this, but remember to get permission and to re-connect the devices when you have finished your game.

Example 3: Your mobile phone can connect as can your tablet so you can download all the updates, chat, play games, play music, and message people using WhatsApp without using your data package. Once you leave your home you may be charged or have to use the data in your contract package for the features listed above.

Wi-Fi Protected Access (WPA and WPA2)

A more modern encryption method found on most network enabled devices. 

Example 1: Networks using WPA are password protected.

Example 2: WPA2 is a more secure version of WPA.

World Wide Web (WWW)

The World Wide Web is the part of the internet that is made up of websites. Each website is made up of one or more web pages.

It's used to describe web pages that are connected to the internet. For example, web pages saved on a CD or an internal private network often called an Intranet, would not be considered to be part of the WWW.


Example 1:


Example 2:


Example 3:





This is an Exclusive OR (XOR), it means the item must be exclusive to one category or another

Example 1: A number can either be positive or negative, it cannot be both.

Example 2: A number can be both an integer and a string, therefore XOR cannot be used.


The horizontal axis on a graph.

Example 1: Ricky moved an asset horizontally along the x-axis.

Example 2: When making a grid, the letters are often put on the x-axis.



The vertical axis on a graph.

Example 1: Ricky moved an asset vertically along the y-axis.

Example 2: When making a grid, the numbers are often put on the y-axis.


An online video-hosting website.

Example 1: Angus posted his biking vlogs to YouTube.  A vlog stands for a video log.

Example 2: Ignot posted his coffee reviews to YouTube.



The 3-dimensional axis, forward or backward.

Example 1: Ricky moved an asset forward along the z-axis.

Example 2: 2D things do not have a z-axis.


This is a file type used to compress 1 or a group of files. It allows you to create 1 folder which may consist of 1 or many files which will then be compressed into a single zipped file. This allows you to send a number of files in one go The compression part of zipping reduces the overall file size. The recipient (the person receiving the files), must then unzip the files to view them. Operating systems such as Windows include built-in utility software to both zip and unzip files.

Example 1: Let's say you want to move 20 images to another computer. Rather than send them one at a time you can zip them all together into 1 zipped folder and send that folder to the other computer. Once at the other computer, you then unzip the folder and you have your 20 images. As the zip file is compressed it will be small than it would have been to send the 20 files individually. This means it would send faster and take up less disk space.

Example 2: You submitted your i-media coursework to your teacher. You have 4 files to submit so you zip them all together and send the 1 zipped folder. Your teacher then unzips the folder and marks your work. All the important files are together, they are compressed so they take up less disk space and they are submitted faster than sending one at at time.

Example 3: You want to send 10-holiday images to your best friend. You zip all the images into one folder and send your friend the folder via email When your friend receives the zip file, they unzip the folder to see your photos. There is often a limit as to the size of the attachments you can send in an email so zipping the files means you can send more before you reach the attachment limit and the files are sent faster.


Zoom can have 2 meanings, one relates to graphics and the other to an online video-conferencing program.


The most common use of the word ZOOM is in relation to a graphic, where you look closely at a part of an image to inspect it or make alterations. You can also zoom in on web pages, often by spreading your fingers on the page or using the zoom control. Most documents and screens allow you to zoom in to see things clearly as this is part of the accessibility features of most software. Zooming in is particularly useful for people who may be visually impaired and need to enlarge items.

Example 1: In graphics, the term "zoom" means to look closely at an image. If you zoom in too far you could see pixels. You can look closely at parts of an image.

Example 2: For those who are visually impaired, allowing them to read things more easily.

Example 3: For those who want to work on a small area, close up.


Example 4: Teachers can use Zoom to teach lessons online.

Example 5: Businesses use Zoom to have meetings from opposite sides of the globe.

Select a word